中国鹤类通讯

CHINA CRANE NEWS

7卷第1 总第13

 

                                                                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

中国动物学会鸟类学分会鹤类及水鸟委员会简报

(内部交流)

20036

 

 

 

 

    

 

公告

       附:专家组成员名单……………………………………………………………………本刊

保护区信息

       黑龙江省八岔岛自然保护区秋季水禽资源调查…………………李晓民 崔长顺 张华

       2002-2003年冬春升金湖国家级自然保护区鹤类及水禽越冬统计……….刘政源 徐文彬

安徽安庆沿江湿地自然保护区水鸟信息…………………………………………….王康明

       扎龙保护区发现沙丘鹤…………….……..…………………………………………..马建华

各地鹤讯

       白鹤GEF项目正式批准…………….…………………………………………………李凤山

       鹤类消息四则…………….…………………………….………………………………钱法文

       华东鹤类消息…………….……..……………………………………...………………马志军

2002/03年冬季云贵高原黑颈鹤普查…….……..………………….……李凤山 杨芳 周巍

在草海环志黑颈鹤…………….……..……………………………….……………..…李凤山

青藏高原黑颈鹤消息(2003…………….……..…………………...…………………马鸣

海外消息

       台南黑脸琵鹭国际保育研讨会后记…………..…….……..……….…………………陈承彦

台湾黑脸琵鹭近况…………….…………………………………….…………………陈承彦

澳门水鸟…………….……..……………………………………….………………..……梁华

缅甸的鹤和其他水鸟…………….……………………………….……………………陈承彦

动物园

      自然育雏研究取得初步成果……….……….……..………..………………………刘斌

      哈尔滨动物园笼养大鸨繁殖取得重大成果…….……….……....……………………田秀华

小额基金

       2003年获准小额基金项目…………….……..……………….…………………………本刊

水鸟研究

东方白鹳保护级别之我见…………………………………….………………………王岐山

       中国东北地区鸟类新记录---流苏鹬…………….…..………刘尊显 张喜祥 冯文义

江西九连山自然保护区发现海南…………….……..…………..……...…唐培荣 廖承开

广西即将建立两个鹭鸟保护区………………….……..………………………………..周放

纳帕海自然保护区白尾海雕和黑鹳的数量逐年增多………….……..……………..韩联宪

东南部沿海越冬黑脸琵鹭和黑嘴鸥调查……..…….……..……………………...张国钢

 消息报导

国际鹤类基金会简介…………………………. …………..………………………..…李凤山

       WWF在九江和长沙召开长江中游湿地和生物多样性研讨会…………………...……周立志

开展社区参与湿地保护区管理的环境教育活动…………….……..……………Sara Moore

盐城观鹤…………….……..……………………………………………..………….…李晓民

新书介绍:《全球水鸟种群数量评估第三版》……………………………………丁长青

欢迎海外会员加盟…………….……..……………………………………………...…李凤山

 

 

CONTENTS

 

An autumn census on waterfowl resource at Bachadao Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang

Province………………………………LI Xiao-Min, CUI Chang-Shun, ZHANG Hua, et al.

A census on wintering cranes and other waterfowls at Shengjin Lake National

Nature Reserve in 2002/2003……………………………….. Liu Zheng-Yuan, Xu Wen-Bin

Information of waterfowls at Anhui Anqing Riverine Wetland Nature Reserve

………………………………………………………………………..……Wang Kang-Ming

Discovery of Sandhill Crane in ZhaLong Nature Reserve……………………………Ma Jian-hua

Siberian Crane GEF Project ………………………………………………………….Li Fengshan

Four pieces of crane news……………………………………………………………Qian Fa-Wen

Crane News from East China……………………………………………………………Ma Zhijun

2002/03 coordinated Black-necked crane winter count in Yunnan and Guizhou……………

       ………………………………………………………………………………….. Li Fengshan

Banding of Black-necked Cranes at Cao Hai National Nature Reserve………………Li Fengshan

News of Black-necked Crane in Tibet Plateau……………………………………………Ma Ming

Report on the International Symposium on Black-faced Spoonbill Conservation…….Simba Chan

Macao waterbirds………………………….………………………………………………Leung Va

Cranes and other waterbirds in Myanmar………………………….………………….. Simba Chan

A preliminary achievement in naturally rearing the nestling of Crested Ibis……..………. Liu Bin

The Important Progress on the Breeding of Captive Great Bustard Otis tarda tarda

in Harbin Zoo…………………………………………………………………. Tian Xiu-Hua

China Crane Grant Project, 2003……………………………………………………………office

My opinion on the threaten category of Oriental White Stork ……………………..Wang Qi-Shan

Philomachus pugnax—a new record ofbird in Northeast China………………………..

       ………………………………. Liu Zun-Xian, Zhang Xi-Xiang, Feng Wen-Yi, Xing Hai-Lin

White-eared Night Heron was found at Jiulianshan Nature Reserve, Jiangxi…………..

       ……………………………………………………………. Tang Pei-Rong, Liao Cheng-Kai

Guangxi will set up tow heron nature reserves………………………..………………Zhou Fang

The annually increasing of White-tailed Sea Eagle and Black Stork at Napahai

Nature Reserve………………………………………………………………. Han Lian-Xian

Survey on wintering Black-faced Spoonbill and Saunderss Gull in the coastal

areas of southeast China…………………………………………………. Zhang Guo-Gang

Introduction to the International Crane Foundation………………………………..…Li Feng-shan

WWF held two symposia on the wetland and biodiversity in the middle basin

       of Yangtze River in Jiujiang and Changsha………………………………..……. Zhou Li-Zhi

Promoting Crane Conservation through Education and Community Involvement

in China and Russia……………………………………………………………….. Sara Moore Watching cranes at Yangcheng………………………...………………………………. Li Xiao-Ming

New book:Waterbird Population Estimates - Third Edition………………. DING Chang-Qing

Membership for the China Crane and Waterbird Committee………………………. Li Feng-shan

 

 

             

为了更好地开展鹤类及水鸟工作,经研究,对本会水鸟专家组成员进行调整,现予以公布。专家组的任务是全面参与水鸟的学术交流,科普宣传与咨询,出版水鸟著作或举办学习班,关心鹤类通讯并提供稿件。                                                             

中国动物学会鸟类学分会

                                                            2003516

 

中国鸟类学会水鸟专家组成员名单及通讯地址

 

  :王岐山    230039    安徽省合肥市肥西路3  安徽大学生命科学学院

                  电话  05515107341(办)  05515107731(宅) E-mail  azs@ahu.edu.cn

副组长:丁长青    100080    北京北四环西路25  中国科学院动物研究所

                  电话  01062558930(办)  01084033590(宅)E-mail cqding@mx.cei.gov.cn

徐延恭    100080    北京北四环西路25  中国科学院动物研究所

                  电话  01062581475(办)  01062647328(宅)E-mail  xuyg@panda.ioz.ac.cn

       

  :(按姓氏笔划排次)

        马逸清    150036    哈尔滨市哈香坊区府林里1352  黑龙江省自然资源研究所

                  电话  04516664562(办)  04512316150(宅)E-mail zys@dragon.net.cn

    830001    新疆自治区乌鲁木齐市北京南路40  中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所

                    电话  099138373574026(办)  09913840369(宅)E-mail maming@ms.xjb.ac.cn

          马志军    200433    上海市邯郸路220  复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所 

                    电话  02165643830(办)  02165615279(宅)E-mail  zhijunm@fudan.edu.cn

                224333    江苏省盐城市建军东路173  盐城国家级自然保护区

                    电话  0515-2642650()  0515-8209508()  E-mail  ycwangh@public.yc.js.cn

          王天厚    200062    上海市中山北路3663  华东师范大学生命科学学院 

                    电话  021625775772859(办)  02162656914(宅)

          史海涛    511158    海南省海口市龙昆南路99  海南师范学院生物系

                    电话  08985583521(办)  08986752479(宅)

          田秀华    150080    哈尔滨市和兴路95  哈尔滨动物园

                    电话  04516347051(办)  04516315125(宅)

                430072    湖北省武汉市武昌珞珈山  武汉大学生命科学学院

                    电话  027788271227242756(办)E-mail luxinwh@public.wh.hb.cn

          朴仁珠    150040    哈尔滨市黑龙江省林业科学研究院

                    电话  04516603806

          邢莲莲    010021    内蒙古自治区呼和浩特市大学路1  内蒙古大学生物系

                    电话  04714992954(办)  04714963007(宅)E-mail shang@email.nm.cninfo.net

          纪伟涛    330046    南昌市北京西路省政府大院东三路林业科技大楼鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区

                    电话  07916292975(办)  07918337928(宅)E-mail jiweitao@public.jiptt.jx.cn

          陈承彦    日本国191东京都日野市南平2-35-2日本野鸟の会

                    电话  +81•••••••42•593•6871(办)  E-mail simba@wing.wbsj.or.jp

          李长友    161002    齐齐哈尔市铁峰区龙南小区5号楼3单元102  扎龙国家级自然保护区

                    电话  04522441346(办)  04522479934(宅)

          李文发    158308    黑龙江省密山市黑龙江八一农垦大学牧医系

                    电话  04535070618(宅)

          李来兴    810001    青海省西宁市西关大街59  中国科学院西北高原生物研究所

                    电话  09716143748(办)  09716102096(宅)

          李晓民    150040    哈尔滨市和兴路26  东北林业大学野生动物资源学院 

                    电话  04512190623(办)  04516355681(宅)  E-mail xiaomin@public.hr.hl.cn

          李筑眉    550009    贵州省贵阳市小河科技大楼  贵州省科学院生物研究所

                     电话  08513832656(办)  08516819866(宅)

           何芬奇    100080    北京北四环路25  中国科学院动物研究所

                     电话  01062562714(办)  010?   E-mail ?

           邹红菲    150040    哈尔滨市和兴路26  东北林业大学野生动物资源学院

                     电话  045121903892191025(办)  E-mail  hongfeizou@sina.com

                 650223    云南省昆明市教场东路32  中国科学院昆明动物研究所

                     电话  08715152023(办)  08715179048(宅)

           邱英杰    110001    沈阳市和平区太原街2  辽宁省林业厅

                     电话  02422823623(办)  02423404166(宅)

                 530005  广西南宁市秀灵路13  广西大学东校园365信箱 

                     电话  0771-3833381-6235(办)  0771-3237777(宅)  E-mail  nnzhoufang@21cn.com

           周立志    230039  安徽省合肥市肥西路3  安徽大学生命科学学院 

                     电话  05515107341(办)  05515108094(宅)  E-mail zhoulz@mail.hf.ah.cn

           胡鸿兴    430072   湖北省武汉市武昌珞珈山  武汉大学环境科学系

                     电话  027878827122682(办)  02787647801(宅)

           桂小杰    410007   湖南省长沙市南大路39  湖南省林业厅森林资源管理保护局

                     电话  07315515901(办)

           高育仁    510260   广东省广州市新港西路105  华南濒危动物研究所

                     电话  020-84192353(办) 020-84186226(宅)  E-mail gzgyrbir@public.guangzhou.gd.cn

           钱法文    100091  北京市1928信箱  中国林业科学研究院全国鸟类环志中心

                     电话  01062888454(办)  01062888634(宅)E-mail cranenw@prot.forestry.ac.cn

                 200234  上海市桂林路100  上海师范大学生物系

                     电话  021647007002931  02164361938(宅)

 

黑龙江省八岔岛自然保护区秋季水禽资源调查

 

八岔岛自然保护区位于黑龙江省同江市东北角,地处中俄边界的黑龙江上。地理位置在133°40′~134°01E48°08′~48°18N。总面积为32014公顷。八岔岛属内陆湿地类型的自然保护区。保护区由大小60余个岛屿组成。最大岛为八岔岛,面积4000公顷。保护区内共记录有高等植物593种,脊椎动物313种。其中国家级保护动物40种。由于保护区的特殊地理位置,成为水禽迁徙的重要通道。每年均有数十万只水禽来此地停栖。2002927日-29日笔者对八岔岛自然保护区秋季迁徙的水禽进行了暂短的调查。共统计到水禽41种计20000多只。本次调查共统计到东方白鹳213只,其中28日共统计到东方白鹳155只,最大集群为45只,为我国东方白鹳最大的秋季迁徙群。还统计到白琵鹭92只,最大集群为32只;统计到大天鹅22只,最大集群14只,1999年秋季统计到200多只的迁徙群;丹顶鹤18只,白枕鹤2只(表1)。

 

1 八岔岛自然保护区水禽统计表

Table 1 The result of the census on waterfowls at Bachadao N. R.

      Species

 

数量 Number

最大种群数量

Indiv. Within the largest group

1 凤头鸊鷉Podiceps cristatus

53

24

2 赤颈鸊鷉Podiceps grisegena

6

4

3 普通鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax carbo

1345

500+

4     Ardea cinerea

148

60+

5     Ardea purpurea

24

8

6 Egretta alba

216

102

7 东方白鹳 Ciconia boyciana

213

45

8 Platalea leucorodia

92

32

9 鸿    Anser cygnoides

1000+

800+

10     Anser fabalis

221

150+

11     Anser anser

3500+

2000+

12 Cygnus cygnus

22

14

13 Anas acuta

37

37

14 绿 Anas crecca

368

130+

15 Anas falcata

39

25

16 绿 Anas platyrhynchos

10000+

5000+

17 Anas poecilorhyncha

53

22

18 Anas querquedula

29

13

19 Anas clypeata

12

12

20 红头潜鸭Aythya ferina

100+

100+

21 青头潜鸭Aythya baeri

120+

120+

22 凤头潜鸭Aythya. fuligula

5000+

3000+

23     Bucephala clangula

25

22

24 白秋沙鸭Mergus. albellus

4

4

25 Grus japonensis

18

12

26 Grus vipio

2

2

27 Gallinula chloropus

3

2

28 Fulico atra

258

200+

29 凤头麦鸡Vanellus vanellus

46

34

30 Charadrius dubius

15

12

31 环颈Charadrius alexandrinus

28

17

32 红腰杓鹬Numenius madagascariensis

3

1

33     Tringa erythropus

22

11

34 Tringa totanus

13

7

35 白腰草鹬Tringa ochropus

58

38

36 针尾沙锥 Gallinago stenura

41

25

37 扇尾沙锥Gallinago gallinago

20

14

38     Larus argentatus

46

37

39 Larus ridibundus

531

210+

40 白翅浮鸥Chlidonias leucoptera

227

180+

41 白额燕鸥Sterna albifrons

29

12

 

                            李晓民(东北林业大学野生动物资源学院,哈尔滨,150040

崔长顺  张华  王新建(黑龙江省八岔岛自然保护区,同江)

 

An autumn census on waterfowl resource at Bachadao Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang Province

Bachadao N. R. an island in Heilongjiang river is located at the northeast of Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province, with an aera of 32014 ha and the coordinates of 133º40~134º01E, 48º08~48º18N. The reserve belongs to the inland wetland and consists of 60 more islets, Bachadao is the largest islet with an area of 4000 ha. There are 593 species of higher plants, 313 species of vertebrates, including 40 species of the state protected animals. It is an important stopover site for migratory birds, and attracts hundred thousands of waterfowls every year. The author made a brief census on autumn migratory waterfowls at the reserve on September 27th~29th, 2002. Forty one species, 20000 more birds were recorded, including 213 Oriental white Storks (the largest group of 45 storks), 92 White Spoonbills  (the largest group of 32 spoonbills), 22 Whooper Swan (the largest group of 14 swan), 18 Red-crownded Cranes and 2 White-naped Cranes (see table 1)

                                                          LI Xiao-Min ( Northeast Forestry University)

                      CUI Chang-Shun, ZHANG Hua, WANG Xin-Jian ( Bachadao N. R.)

 

 

2002-2003年冬春升金湖国家级自然保护区

鹤类及水禽越冬统计

升金湖国家级保护区自建立至今已经17年了,1997 晋升为国家级保护区后,保护区的保护工作正在步入科学管理的轨道,2001年冬保护区再次加大了保护的力量,在保护区水禽相对集中的区域,分为上湖、中湖、下湖三个监测点,分别规定每月15号、30号进行一次全面调查,观察统计水禽的种群数量,统计面积约为5万亩,使保护和监测工作收到了明显的效果。

 按科学角度的要求每个监测点在每月15号、30号同一天从上午10点至12点对辖区的水禽种类、数量及栖息位置进行统计记录。对200210月至20033月之间每月两次统计记录进行汇总,选择最大的累加数量作为当月水禽的统计数量,结果见下表:

 

1. 200210月至20033月升金湖保护区水禽数量统计表

Table 1  Census result of waterfowls at Shengjin Lake National N. R.

from October, 2002 to March, 2003

 

种类 Species

数量(只)Number

白头鹤  Hooded Crane

375

白枕鹤White-naped Crane

4

白鹤Siberian Crane

23

灰鹤Common Crane

4

东方白鹳Oriental White Stork

213

白琵鹭White Spoonbill

470

小天鹅Tundra Swan

2000

鸿雁Swan Goose

20000

白额雁White-fronted Goose

5000

豆雁Bean Goose

2000

鸭类Ducks

21000

鹬类Plover and snipe

1350

黑鹳Black Stork

14

其它 Others

2860

 

       调查统计情况分析,升金湖保护区鸟类资源主要受到以下几点因素的影响:1、人为干扰,入冬以来湖区放养家禽严重干扰水禽的栖息和觅食;2、水产开发,筑坝堵水,提高湖区水位,淹没大片的沼泽和草滩,使大型涉禽的栖息地和觅食地显著减少,迫使水禽迁至圩口内栖息活动。
                                                                                   
                                                                                                          
刘政源  徐文彬  (江西 

 

A census on wintering cranes and other waterfowls at Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve in 2002/2003

Since promoted to be the national nature reserve Shengjin Lake National N. R. has got onto the scientific track. In the winter of 2001, three monitoring sites with a total area of 50 thousand Mu were set up at the upper, middle and lower lakes respectively by the reserve. It stipulated that the overall census should be made at the 15th and 30th monthly.

The census was made from 10:00 to 12:00 in the morning, following is the result of the censuses from October, 2002 to March, 2003.(see table 1)

The census found that the bird resource at the reserve was affected by: 1. Human disturbance. In winter the local farmers let their poultries feed at the lake area, hence disturbed the habitat of waterfowls. 2. The aquaculture and damming up water arised the water level, large area of marshes and grassy beaches were inundated, it reduced the habitat of large waders and forced them to move to the mouth of the embankment.

Liu Zheng-Yuan, Xu Wen-Bin (Jiangxi )

 

安徽安庆沿江湿地自然保护区水鸟信息

 

2003年1月16日至23日,湿地国际—中国办事处邀请澳大利亚水鸟研究专家马克·巴特先生在安徽安庆沿江湿地自然保护区开展了为期8天的水鸟调查和技术培训活动,参加调查活动的有湿地国际随行人员、安徽省林业厅及全省各湿地保护区技术人员共计26人。本次调查活动的主要目的是了解黑腹滨鹬的分布情况,同时调查统计其它水鸟。

安庆沿江湿地自然保护区地处东经 116°07′~ 117°45′、 北纬29°50′~ 30°58′之间,位于安徽省西南部、长江北岸,总面积12万公顷,主要保护对象为珍稀水鸟和湿地生态系统。本次活动选在该保护区的菜子湖、武昌湖两处重要湿地进行,调查统计到的水鸟共30 种25924只(详见附表)。

本次调查共统计黑腹滨鹬9420只,其中在菜子湖统计到黑腹滨鹬8240只,武昌湖1180只,据马克.巴克提供的资料,这一数量高于鄱阳湖(5372只)和升金湖(未发现)统计的数量。此外还统计到反嘴鹬1770只,超过保护区历史记录。

2003年1月16-18日,在枞阳县杨湾乡双星、先让两村附近的菜子湖湿地先后观察统计到白头鹤231只,白鹤2只,白琵鹭1652只,与保护区以往统计的数量基本一致。另外,保护区人员2002年12月上旬在菜子湖东风圩发现白鹤25只,由此估计,菜子湖可能是白鹤的一处迁徙停歇地。2003年2月保护区人员在菜子湖还发现东方白鹳28只。

此外,本次调查共统计鸿雁数量7023只,豆雁1000只,白额雁13只,小天鹅604只。灰斑鸻735只,红嘴鸥741只,斑嘴鸭572只。

安庆沿江湿地是水鸟重要的栖息分布地和迁徙停歇地,每年冬春季节,湖水消退,大片滩地显露,饵料生物丰富,适宜于水鸟的栖息越冬,尤其是该保护区的菜子湖湿地自然性维持较好,从而成为水鸟极为重要的栖息地。根据本次调查结果和保护区的监测记录,保护区有10种候鸟达到国际湿地公约1%标准,即白头鹤、东方白鹳、白琵鹭、小天鹅、鸿雁、反嘴鹬、鹤鹬、青脚鹬、绿头鸭和黑腹滨鹬(黑腹滨鹬的实际数量估计也超过1%标准)。因此,安庆沿江湿地保护区具有国际意义。

由于本次调查时间紧,所选的观测地点较少,调查面积占仅占水鸟栖息地面积的10%,加上天气状况不佳(阴有雾),因此,调查区域实际拥有的水鸟种类和数量肯定要大大超出调查统计数。即便是这样,马克·巴特先生还是对该保护区的水鸟资源状况表现出了浓厚的兴趣,并给予很高的评价。

安庆沿江湿地自然保护区水鸟统计表(2003116-22)

序号

         

         

    

   

   

                                  

25924

18868

7056

1

Dunlin

黑腹滨鹬

9420

8240

1180

2

Black-tailed Godwit

黑尾塍鹬

8

8

 

3

Eurasian Curlew

白腰杓鹬

90

 

90

4

Spotted Redshank

鹤鹬

70

38

32

5

Common Greenshank

青脚鹬

12

12

 

6

Green Sandpiper

白腰草鹬

4

4

 

7

Pied Avocet

反嘴鹬

1770

1770

 

8

Northern Lapwing

风头麦鸡

38

38

 

9

Grey Plover

灰斑鸻

735

735

 

10

Little Grebe

小鷉鸊

32

28

4

11

Grey Heron

苍鹭

1086

1054

32

12

Great Egret

大白鹭

121

121

 

13

Eurasian Spoonbill

白琵鹭

1652

1652

 

14

Oriental Stork

东方白鹳

1

1

 

15

Bewick’s Swan

小天鹅

604

4

600

16

Swan Goose

鸿雁

7023

2523

4500

17

Bean Goose

豆雁

1000

600

400

18

White-fronted Goose

白额雁

13

13

 

19

Ruddy Shelduck

赤麻鸭

19

10

9

20

Mallard

绿头鸭

250

250

 

21

Spotbill Duck

斑嘴鸭

572

510

62

22

Northern Pintail

针尾鸭

1

 

1

23

Common Pochard

红头潜鸭

100

 

100

24

Baer’s Pochard

青头潜鸭

2

2

 

25

Smew

白秋沙鸭

5

 

5

26

Unidentified duck

未识别鸭

190

190

 

27

Hooded Crane

白头鹤

231

231

 

28

Siberian Crane

白鹤

2

2

 

29

Herring Gull

银鸥

132

132

 

30

Black-headed Gull

红嘴鸥

741

700

41

 

                                                 (安徽安庆沿江湿地自然保护区   王康明)

 

 

 

 Information of waterfowls at Anhui Anqing Riverine Wetland Nature Reserve

From January 16th to 23th, 2003, Mr. Mark Barter an Australia expert of waterfowl was invited by Wetland International—China Programme to make a census on waterfowls at Anhui Anqing Riverine Wetland N. R., and to train the staff. The entourage of the wetland International, the officers of Anhui Forestry Bureau and the staff of the wetland reserves of Anhui totally 26 persons took part in the census.

The coordinates of the reserve is 116º07~117º45E, 29º50~30º58N, it locates in the southwest of Anhui Province, along the north bank of Changjiang River, with an area of 120 hundred thousand ha, it mainly protects the rare and precious waterfowls and wetland ecosystem. Two main wetlands of the reserve –Caizi Lake and Wuchang Lake were censused, 30 species, 25924 birds were recorded (See table 1)

Here we found 9420 Dunlins this number was more than 5372 Dunlins found at poyang Lake, we have the highest record of 1770 Pied Avocets at the reserve this time. From January 16th to 18th, 2003, 231 Hooded Cranes, 2 Siberian Cranes and 1652 White Spoonbills were found at the wetlands of Caizi Lake near the Shuangxing Village and Xianrang Village, Yangwan Town, Zongyang County, the result was concordant with those recorded before. In addition, 25 Siberian Cranes had been found at Dongfengwei, Caizi Lake by the staff in early December, 2002, we think that Caizi Lake might be a stopover site for the migratory Siberian Cranes. In February, 2003, 28 Oriental White Storks were found here either.

The reserve especially the Caizi Lake is an important site for waterfowls to overwinter or stopover. According to this census and the yearly records, there are 10 species of migrants reach at the 1% criteria of the Convention on Wetland: Oriental White Stork, White Spoonbill, Tundra Swan, Swan Goose, Pied Avocet, Spotted Redshank, Common Greenshank, Dunlin and Mallard. Hence the reserve is of international importance.

We only censused 10% of waterfowl habitat in the reserve this time, and the cloudy and fogy weather might affect the bird counting, even though Mr. Mark Barter was very interesting in the waterfowl resource of the reserve, and highly evalluated the reserve.

 

Wang Kang-Ming (Anhui Anqing Riverine Wetland N. R.,)

扎龙保护区发现沙丘鹤

 

2003427日,17点左右,在黑龙江扎龙国家级自然保护区境内,首次发现沙丘鹤。发现人是在齐齐哈尔公安交警支队宣传科工作的高友兴,鹤类摄影家。发现时,有4--5只沙丘鹤集群与200多只白头鹤混群采食。由于距离远,只拍摄到与自己距离较近的其中一只,这只沙丘鹤与两只白头鹤在一起,个体识别特征明显,可以确定。发现地点在林甸县三合乡军马场王家营子南一块玉米地周围,地理坐标为北纬:471115.6 ,东经:1243319.2

     沙丘鹤亦称加拿大鹤、棕鹤。分布在北美洲、古巴及西伯利亚东北部。世界现存15种鹤,中国分布9种,沙丘鹤在我国偶见或属迷鸟。1979年在江苏曾发现过一只。扎龙保护区分布6种鹤,此次发现将使扎龙保护区鹤类繁殖、迁徙停歇分布种类达7种,占世界现存种类的47%。由于此次发现个体较多,沙丘鹤能否作为在我国分布的偶见种类或迷鸟,有待进一步观察研究,但扎龙保护区作为世界鹤类重要分布地,保护工作更加重要。

马建华  (黑龙江省扎龙国家级自然保护区管理局)

 

Discovery of Sandhill Crane in ZhaLong Nature Reserve

on April 27th , 2003, Sandhill Crane was found in Zhalong Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang province at 17:00 by Mr. Gao Youxing, a crane photographer who is working at the Propaganda Department of Traffic Police Office in Qiqihar City.  He described that 4-5 Sandhill Cranes were feeding together with more than two hundreds Hooded Cranes. Limited by the far distance, he could only took  some photographs of one Sandhill Crane and three Hooded cranes closed to him. The characters of the rest Sandhill Cranes could be distinguished accurately either. The found site is located at a corn field of southern Wangjiayingzi in Sanhe Village in Lindian County, at 47º1115.6N, 124º3319.2E .

Sandhill Crane, is also named Canadian  Crane and  Brown Crane. It primarily distributes in North America, Cuba and Northeastern  Siberia. There are fifteen crane species existing in the world, nine of them distribute in China.  Sandhill Crane is the stray bird in China. Only a Sandhill Crane individual was once found in Jiangsu Province in 1979.

There were six crane species distributing in Zhalong before.  At present there are seven crane species breeding, migrating, stopping over in Zhalong Nature Reserve , those took about 47% of total crane species in the world.

Because  that several Sandjhill Cranes were found this time,  we need to do more observe and research and to determine if Sandhill Crane can be considered as the stray bird in China. Being an important crane distribution site in the world,  the cranes protection  in Zhalong Nature Reserve will become more important.

                                                               Ma Jian-hua (Zhalong Nature Reserve)

GEF

联合国环境署/全球环境基金(UNEP/GEF)“亚洲白鹤及其它国际重要迁徙水鸟迁徙通道与重要湿地的保护” 项目于2002年10月获得全球环境基金委员会的批准。中国GEF项目联络处代表中国政府于2001年9月29日批复了该项目的概要。GEF秘书处和UNEP与国际鹤类基金会分别于2003年2月和3月签署了项目文件。

本项目包括白鹤东部和西部两个迁徙路线上的中国、俄罗斯、伊朗、哈萨克斯坦四个国家。项目的总体目标是维持亚洲国际重要湿地网络及依赖这些湿地生存的迁徙水鸟的生态完整性。项目目标将通过在区域、国家和湿地地点三个水平实施活动来实现。湿地地点级的成果将通过开展合法保护、管理计划、利益相关者参与、能力建设、公众意识项目和替代性产业发展项目等来实现国际重要湿地的管理。在国家级水平上,将采取措施进一步加强立法、政策和计划,地方计划中考虑生物多样性的内容,开展检测活动,开展能力建设以适应国际合作需要,进行人员培训,实施提高公众意识的教育项目等。区域性的项目活动将以白鹤作为旗舰物种,通过建立国际性的湿地地点网络,以保护湿地及其迁徙水鸟。为了项目监测的便利,该项目被设计成两个阶段,以便UNEP可以根据设定的标准跟踪项目的进展。

国际鹤类基金会是本项目的国际执行机构。中国国家林业局是本GEF项目的中国执行机构,并在全国鸟类环志中心设立国家协调办公室。项目点有鄱阳湖、扎龙国家级自然保护区、向海国家级自然保护区、莫莫格国家级自然保护区和科尔沁国家级自然保护区。本项目运行期限为2003年至2009年。项目第一阶段的工作将集中在鄱阳湖、扎龙、向海,以及国家和国际性的活动。

李凤山(  国际鹤类基金会)

 

Siberian Crane GEF Project

 

The UNEP/GEF Project Brief entitled "Development of a Wetland Site and Flyway Network for Conservation of the Siberian Crane and Other Migratory Waterbirds in Asia" was approved by the GEF Council in October 2002.  The Project Brief was endorsed by the GEF Operational Focal Point on behalf of the Government of China on September 29, 2001.  The UNEP Project Document was singed by the GEF Secretariate in February 2003 and by UNEP and ICF in March 2003.

 

This project involves four countries -- China, Russia, Iran, and Kazakhstan -- along two flyways of Siberian Cranes.  The overall goal of the project is the sustained ecological integrity of a network of globally important wetlands in Asia and the migratory waterbirds that depend on them. This outcome will be accomplished through components at wetland site, national and regional levels. Site-level outputs address the management of globally significant flyway wetlands through legal protection, management plans, stakeholder participation, capacity building, public awareness programmes and alternative livelihood projects. These activities are supported by national measures to strengthen legislation, policies and plans; biodiversity input to regional planning; monitoring; capacity building for international cooperation; training; and education and public awareness programmes. The regional component focuses on the development of wetland site networks using the Siberian Crane as a “flagship species” for wetland and migratory waterbird conservation, based on the qualities that lend it both popular appeal and cultural importance in the regions where it occurs.  For monitoring purposes, the project has been designed in two phases, thus allowing UNEP to track progress against defined benchmarks.  

 

The International Crane Foundation is the International Executing Agency for this project.  The State Forestry Administration is the executing agency for these GEF project activities in China, and has established a project office – National Coordination Unit – at the National Bird Banding Center of China.  Project sites in China are Poyang Lake, Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Xianghai National Nature Reserve, Momoge National Nature Reserve, and Keerqin National Nature Reserve. This project will run from 2003 – 2009.  Phase 1 for China will focus primarily on Poyang Lake, Zhalong, Xianghai, and activities at national and international scales.  -

 Li Fengshan  ( International Crane Foundation)

 

鹤类消息四则

1.白鹤GEF项目进展

由国际鹤类基金会组织四个白鹤分布国(中国、俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦和伊朗)共同向UNEP申请的全球环境基金(GEF)项目,将于今年6月份正式启动。由于受非典(SARS)的影响,原定今年4月底在我国召开的项目启动会,不得不移到俄罗斯的莫斯科举行,时间也推迟到6月初。

该项目总金额为1000万美元,中国项目区占其中的40%。在我国实施的项目区域是黑龙江的扎龙国家级自然保护区、吉林的莫莫格和向海国家级自然保护区、内蒙的科尔沁国家级自然保护区,江西鄱阳湖整个湖区作为项目实施区域,鄱阳湖项目区具体负责单位是江西野生动植物保护管理局。项目实施从2003年开始,到2009年结束,跨越7个年度。

该项目的全称是“亚洲白鹤及其它国际重要迁徙水鸟迁徙通道与重要湿地的保护”。项目主要内容是项目点能力建设(人员培训、购置必要的设备等)、白鹤等其它水鸟的监测、社区共管等。通过改项目的实施,将进一步提高我国东部地区对迁徙水鸟的保护和管理工作。

 

2.白鹤GEF项目中国项目区工作会议在吉林向海国家级保护区召开

为积极配合首次白鹤GEF项目第一次指导委员会会议的召开,中国GEF项目办公室召集各项目点负责人及技术人员,于41316日在吉林向海国家级自然保护区召开了工作会议。会议主要内容是审核2003年执行的项目、安排工作时间和经费、根据UNEP的项目表填写2003年度工作计划。国际鹤类基金会李凤山博士和GEF项目国际办公室主任Paul先生参加了本次会议,并对具体内容进行了指导。

 

3.鹤类网络保护区小项目即将启动

为进一步促进中国鹤类网络保护区执行鹤类网络行动计划,国家林业局保护司将采取项目形式促进网络保护区的工作,目前10个鹤类网络保护区上报项目工作已经完成。上报项目内容如下:

网络保护区

上报项目

三江国家级自然保护区

鹤类保护与管理

兴凯湖国家级自然保护区

中俄兴凯湖国际保护区鹤类研究

扎龙国家级自然保护区

乌裕尔河流域迁徙白鹤的监测

向海国家级自然保护区

建设鹤类救护站

双台河口国家级自然保护区

鹤类种群监测

黄河三角洲国家级自然保护区

鹤类调查与监测

盐城国家级自然保护区

越冬丹顶鹤及其栖息地有效管理

升金湖国家级自然保护区

越冬水鸟及生境管理研究初探

鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区

越冬珍禽联合保护

草海国家级自然保护区

刘家巷黑颈鹤觅食区参与式保护

 

4.鄱阳湖越冬鹤类调查

2003159日,全国鸟类环志中心与江西省野生动植物保护管理局合作,开展了鄱阳湖越冬水鸟调查。6日和7日是调查人员的培训,9日为统一调查时间。参加培训的人员来自湖区各市、县、区,共约60余人,实际参加野外调查的人员有200多人。调查范围涉及鄱阳湖及其周边的68个湖泊湿地。本次调查统计到越冬鸟类40多种,数量近30万只。在鄱阳湖越冬的鹤类种类和数量(包括东方白鹳)情况如下:

种类

白鹤

白头鹤

白枕鹤

灰鹤

东方白鹳

数量

4004

462

1932

458

1526

 

钱法文(全国鸟类环志中心,北京100091

 

Four pieces of crane news

1. The progress of GEFs Siberian Crane Programme

A GEFs programme applied by the ICF and the four countries where Siberian Cranes distributed (China, Russia, Karakhstan and Iran) will be started in June, 2003. Oringinally the programme launching meeting would be held in China in April, 2003, threatened by the SARS the meeting had to be held in Moscow in June, 2003.

The fund for the programme is US$10 million, the chinese programme takes 40% of all. In China the programme covers Zhalong N.N.R. of Heilongjiang, Momoge and Xianghai N.N.R.s of Inner Mongolia and the whole area of Poyang Lake of Jiangxi. The programme takes 7 years, it goes from 2003 to 2009.

The programme named “Wetland Site and Flyway Network for the Conservation of the Siberian Crnae and other Migratory Waterbirds in Asia”. It contains the ability construction (staff training, purchases equipment ect.), monotoring and managing Siberian Cranes and other waterfowls together with social community ect.. In doing so to further promote the protection and management on migratory waterfowls in East China.

2. A working meeting of the China programme of GEFs programme was held at Xianghai N.N.R. Jilin

In order to coordinate the 1st supervisory committee meeting of GEFs Siberian Crane programme, the office of China programme convened the leaders and technical staff of each programme site to have a meeting at Xianghai N.N.R., Jilin, from 13th  to 16th April, 2003. The meeting verified the items of 2003, arranged the schedule and expenses, according to the programme table of UNEP to fill the work plan of 2003. Dr. Li Feng-Shan of the ICF and Mr. Paul the director of international office of GEF programme attended the meeting and guided the concrete work.

3. A small programme for the nature reserves on the crane network will be launched soon

In order to further promote the nature reserves on China crane network to conducted the crane network action plan, the division of wildlife conservation of State Forestry Admministration arranged fund to support small items, so far all the items of 10 nature reserves were reported to the leadship, following are the items:

_________________________________________________________________________

  Nature Reserve                              Item

Sanjiang N.N.R.           Crane protection and management

Xianghai N.N.R.           Crane research in Sino-Russian Xingkaihu International N.R.

Zhalong N.N.R.            Monitoring the migratory Siberian Cranes in Wuyu¹er River

                         Basin

Xianghai N.N.R.           Monitoring the crane populations

Huanghe Delta N.N.R.      Survey and monitoring cranes

Yancheng N.N.R.          The effective management of wintering Red-crowned Crane

                         And its habitat

Shengjinhu N.N.R.          A preliminary research on wintering waterfowls and their

                         habitats

Poyanghu N.N.R.          Comprehensive protection of wintering rare birds

Caohai N.N.R.            Participatory protection on feeding area of Black-necked

                        Crane at Liujiaxiang

 

4. Census on wintering cranes at Poyang Lake

A coorperative census on wintering waterfowls at Poyang Lake was made by National Bird Banding Center of China and Jiangxi Wildlife Protection Administrative Bureau from 5th to 9th January, 2003. The participants were trained on 6th and 7th , the census was made on 7th . More than 60 persons from the lake area were trained, more than 200 persons censused Poyang Lake and its peripheral 68 lakes. More than 40 species nearly 300 thousand of wintering birds were found, and summaried in table 2.

Table 2  The wintering cranes and storks at the area of  Poyang Lake in 2002/2003

Species  Siberian     Hooded     White-naped     Common      Oriental White

        Crane       Crane       Crane          Crane         Stork

        4004         462        1932            458          1526

                                   Qian Fa-Wen (National Bird Banding Center of China, Beijing 100091)

 

              华东鹤类消息

1.崇明东滩发现带无线电发射器的黑脸琵鹭

复旦大学马志军、敬凯等42日在崇明东滩调查时,在滩涂发现带无线电发射器和环志的黑脸琵鹭。该鸟左腿带无线电发射器,右腿佩戴绿色鸟环,环上的白色编号为A35。根据日本野鸟协会陈承彦提供的资料,该鸟为200212月在香港米埔被捕获并佩戴上发射器和环志的。在崇明东滩记录到该鸟的位置为北纬31.54673度,东经121.96020度。上海的鸟类爱好者陆巍、王吉衣也于419日在崇明东滩围垦的鱼塘内记录到黑脸琵鹭21只,并发现佩戴无线电发射器和环志的黑脸琵鹭。估计该鸟和42日记录到的黑脸琵鹭可能是同一只鸟。

41-2日,马志军和敬凯在崇明东滩共记录到黑脸琵鹭27只,共3个群体(分别为13只,11只,3)。除11只在天空飞行外,其他两个群体都在滩涂上活动。近年来,马志军等在迁徙季节多次在长江河口湾区域记录到停歇的黑脸琵鹭种群。上海师范大学俞伟东曾在崇明东滩一次记录到黑脸琵鹭60余只。这表明长江河口湾区域为黑脸琵鹭重要的迁徙中途停歇地。

 

2.崇明东滩越冬白头鹤消息

2002年冬季,复旦大学敬凯在崇明东滩记录到越冬的白头鹤101只,另外,有5只灰鹤在冬季和白头鹤一起在滩涂活动。20033月底,白头鹤离开崇明东滩向北迁飞。根据华东师范大学徐玲的调查,白头鹤于20021028日到达崇明东滩。因此,白头鹤在崇明东滩的越冬期约为5个月。近年来,由于滩涂的围垦开发及互花米草的入侵和扩散,白头鹤的栖息地面临着严重的威胁,亟待采取保护措施。

 

3.九段沙湿地自然保护区鸟类资源调查

九段沙位于长江河口湾区域的最外侧,为长江河口湾区域新形成的沙岛。2000年,上海市批准成立了九段沙湿地自然保护区。为了配合九段沙湿地自然保护区申报国家级自然保护区的工作,200210月至20031月,马志军、唐仕敏、敬凯等对九段沙的鸟类资源进行了4次调查。调查共记录到鸟类70种,其中包括国家二级保护鸟类黑脸琵鹭和小天鹅。另外,还记录到了苍鹰、普通鵟、白头鹞、雀鹰、红隼等猛禽。

近年来,上海市的高校和科研单位多次对九段沙的鸟类资源进行调查。从调查的结果来看,九段沙鸟类的种类正在迅速增加。2000年在九段沙共记录湿地鸟类21种;2001年,在九段沙共记录到鸟类44种,其中湿地鸟类29(原统计资料为30种,包括1种非湿地鸟类);而200210月至20031月,仅秋末和冬季不到两个季节就记录到鸟类70种,其中湿地鸟类40种。九段沙鸟类种类的增加与滩涂面积的不断增加有关。由于长江夹带泥沙在九段沙不断淤积,九段沙的滩涂面积不断增加,这为湿地鸟类提供了更为广阔的栖息环境。根据复旦大学、华东师范大学、上海师范大学、上海科技馆等单位的调查资料,目前,九段沙记录到的鸟类总计有113种。随着九段沙面积的继续增加,九段沙在鸟类保护上的意义将更加重要。

 

4.长江下游非繁殖期黑腹滨鹬调查

黑腹滨鹬为东亚-澳大利亚迁徙路线上最为常见的鸟类之一。为了了解非繁殖期黑腹滨鹬在我国长江下游地区的种群状况,湿地国际组织的Mark Barter和东洞庭湖自然保护区的雷刚等在20031月对湖南、湖北、江西、安徽四省的黑腹滨鹬进行了调查。在46个调查区域,共记录到黑腹滨鹬47739只。近一半数量的黑腹滨鹬是在湖南省记录的,其中在安徽菜子湖记录到的最大集群的个体数量达6490只。根据本次调查的结果,Mark Barter和雷刚认为,非繁殖期在整个长江下游的黑腹滨鹬数量可能超过20万只。因此,长江下游地区对非繁殖期黑腹滨鹬的保护具有重要意义。

 

                            马志军 (复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所,上海  200433)

 

Crane News from East China

1. Black-faced Spoonbill with radio-transmitter and color banding was recorded at Chongming Dongtan

A Black-faced Spoonbill with radio-transmitter and color banding was recorded at Chongming Dongtan on 2 April, 2003. According to the MA Zhi-Jun and JING Kai’s investigation, the bird carried radio-transmitter on the left leg, and green banding on the right leg. The white serial number on the banding is “A35”. Simba Chan in the Japan Wild Bird Society provided detailed data about the bird: it is banded at Mai Po, Hong Kong in December 2002. The location of the bird at Chongming Dongtan is N31.54673 degree, E121.96020 degree. LU Wei and WANG Ji-Yi, two birdwatchers in Shanghai also recorded a Black-faced Spoonbill with radio-transmitter and color banding in aquacultural ponds of Chongming Dongtan on 19 April. Probably the bird is the same one recorded on 2 April.

27 Black-faced Spoonbill in 3 flocks (13, 11, 3) were recorded by MA Zhi-Jun and JING Kai on 1 and 2 April. Except 11 birds flying on the sky, other two flocks were recorded on the tideland. In recent years, MA Zhi-Jun recorded Black-faced Spoonbill at the estuary of Yangtze River for many times in migration season. YU Wei-Dong at Shanghai Teacher’s University recorded more than 60 Black-faced Spoonbill at Chongming Dongtan in spring 2002. These showed that the estuary of Yangtze River is important stopover site for the Black-faced Spoonbill.

 

2. Hooded Crane wintering at Chongming Dongtan

In the winter of 2002, JING Kai at Fudan University recorded 101 Hooded Crane and 5 Common Crane at Chongming Dongtan. Crane left Chongming Dongtan at the end of March. XU Ling at East China Normal University recorded that Crane came to Chongming Dongtan on 28 Oct. So the wintering period of Hooded Crane at Chongming Dongtan is about 5 months. For the reclamation of tideland and introduction of Spartina alterniflora, an evil invasive plant into the tidelands, the habitat for Hooded Crane is faced with serious threats.

 

3. Bird survey at Jiu-Duan-Sha wetland Nature Reserve

Jiu-Duan-Sha is a newly formed island at the estuary of Yangtze River. The Jiu-Duan-Sha wetland Nature Reserve was founded in 2000. In order to cooperate the declaration of promoting to National Nature Reserve, MA Zhi-Jun, TANG Shi-Min and JING Kai investigated on the bird resources at Jiu-Duan-Sha from Oct. 2002 to Jan. 2003. 70 bird species was recorded there, including Black-faced Spoonbill and Whistling Swan, the National 2nd level protected bird. In addition, some Accipiter, such as Northern Goshawk, Common Buzzard, Eurasian Marsh Harrier, Eurasian sparrowhawk, Common Kestrel, etc.

In recent years, the colleges, universities and research departments in Shanghai investigated bird resources at Jiu-Duan-Shan for many times. Results showed that the bird species is increasing at Jiu-Duan-Sha. In 2000, 21 waterbirds were recorded at Jiu-Duan-Sha; in 2001, 44 birds were recorded at Jiu-Duan-Sha including 29 waterbird. From Oct. 2002 to Jan. 2003, 70 birds were recorded there, including 40 waterbirds. For the sedimentation of sand and silt brought by Yangtze River, the area of Jiu-Duan-Sha kept increasing. This provided larger habitats for the birds. According to the field investigation of Fudan University, East China Normal University, Shanghai Teacher’s University and Shanghai Scientific Museum, Up till now, 113 bird species were recorded at Jiu-Duan-Sha totally. With the increasing of area, Jiu-Duan-Sha will show more important significant in bird conservation.

 

4. Investigation on the No-breeding Dunlin at the lower reaches of Yangtze River

Dunlin is one of the most common shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. In order to know the population status of Non-breeding Dunlin at the lower reaches of Yangtze River, Mark Barter in Wetland International and LEI Gang in East Dongtinghu Nature Reserve investigated the Dunlin in Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Province in Jan. 2003. 47739 Dunlin were recorded in 46 investigating sites. Nearly half of the total numbers were recorded at Hunan Province. The largest flock (6490 birds) was recorded at Caizi Lake in Anhui Province. According to the results, Mark Barter and LEI Gang considered that the number of Non-breeding Dunlin at the lower reaches of Yangtze River could be more than 200 thousand. This suggested that the lower reaches of Yangtze River are important for the conservation of Non-breeding Dunlin.

Ma ZhijunInstitute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University

2002/03年冬季云贵高原黑颈鹤普查

国际鹤类基金会、云南省林业厅、贵州省环境保护局于2002/03年冬季在云贵高原进行了黑颈鹤同步调查。本次调查以及随后召开的黑颈鹤调查总结会改善了云贵两省黑颈鹤越冬区的科研、保护和保护工作,同时也加强了各越冬地点之间在黑颈鹤生境保护和管理上的合作和信息交流。

本次调查是上述合作三方同步共同开展的黑颈鹤三年调查的第二年。调查是在2003118-19日进行的,来自云南和贵州10个县125人参加了调查,调查人员覆盖了51个黑颈鹤栖息地点(包括潜在的地点)。两天的统计结果分别为34873370只黑颈鹤。在这两天中,在上述51个越冬地点也分别记录:灰鹤(14731520),斑头雁(39553859),赤麻鸭(74687741)。

    本次调查的数量总体上高于2001/02年冬季的数量。该次调查(同样是118-19)两天的数量分别为:黑颈鹤(32613,182),灰鹤(8041158),斑头雁(17592978),赤麻鸭(3442 5444)。 本次调查数量比上次调查数量高的原因可能是:(1) 本次调查比上次增加了5个地点;(2) 很多的调查人员已经经过了两次培训,鸟类方面的知识和技术提高了;(3)我们为所有调查点提供了《中国鸟类野外手册》,又配备了更多的望远镜,增加了水禽识别和计数的精确性。

合作三方于200333日日在贵州草海召开了黑颈鹤调查总结会。来自国际鹤类基金会、云贵两省黑颈鹤越冬地、县野生动物主管部门,以及一些科研教学单位的45名代表参加了总结会。会议上,代表们总结了本次调查的结果,交流了黑颈鹤越冬地保护和管理的经验,讨论了下一步的工作计划。

本次调查由Gordon Rock家庭、 Sam Evans先生提供资助,云南省林业厅、贵州省环境保护局也为调查以及调查总结会提供了经费支持。

李凤山 (国际鹤类基金会);杨   (云南省林业厅);周 (贵州省环境保护局)

 

2002/03 coordinated Black-necked crane winter count in Yunnan and Guizhou

The coordinated survey in the winter of 2002/03 for Black-necked Cranes and other large waterbirds in Yunnan and Guizhou Plateau has been conducted successfully by the International Crane Foundation (ICF), the Yunnan Forestry Department (YFD), and the Guizhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB).  The survey and the follow-up summary workshop have improved capacity in research, conservation, and management of Black-necked Cranes and other waterbirds for participating sites, and strengthened the cooperation and information exchange among them in this region. 

This survey was the second of an on-going three-year crane count by the above three agencies.  The survey was made on 18-19 January 2003, with participation of 125 people and covering a total of 51 sites.  3,487 and 3,370 Black-necked Cranes (Grus nigricollis) were recorded on 18 and 19 January 2003 respectively.  1,473 and 1,520 were recorded for Common Cranes (Grus grus), 3,955 and 3,859 for Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus), and 7,468 and 7,741 for Ruddy Shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea) on 18 and 19 January 2003 respectively.

In general, more birds were recorded in winter 2002/03 than winter 2001/02.  Numbers from last year were: 3,261 and 3,182 Black-necked Cranes, 804 and 1,158 Common Cranes Grus grus, 1,759 and 2,978 Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus, and 3,442 and 5,444 Ruddy Shelducks Tadorna ferruginea on 18 and 19 January 2002 respectively.  The high count for this winter may be due to: (1) more sites were covered; (2) better trained participants, most of whom have received two trainings; (3) better equipment and bird field guidebooks.

A summary workshop on the survey was held at Cao Hai National Nature Reserve on 3 March 2003.  Forty-five people from Yunnan, Guizhou and ICF participated in the workshop.  At the workshop, survey results were reported, information and experiences in conservation, research and management on cranes and their habitats were shared, and plans for next steps were discussed.

This project was made possible with donations from the Gordon and Shirley Rock family and Mr. Sam Evans.  Yunnan Forestry Department and Guizhou Environmental Protection Bureau have also provided funding to the survey and the summary workshop.

Li Fengshan ( International Crane Foundation); Yang Fang (Yunnan Forestry Department) Zhou Wei (Guizhou Environmental Protection Bureau)

在草海环志黑颈鹤

我们于2002/03年冬季在草海国家级自然保护区对黑颈鹤进行了环志,共环志了5只黑颈鹤。我们给这些鹤戴了金属环和彩环,环志后,在捕捉地点立即放飞。环志鹤的具体情况见表1

 

1. 2002年冬季在草海环志黑颈鹤一览表

 

自编号

环志具体地点

环志时间

-月-日

金属号

彩环颜色、位置

年龄

体重(g)

体长(cm)

备注

左腿

右腿

1

鸭子塘

2003-3-7

N00-6403

 

绿

成鹤

6250

110

家庭鹤(2成鹤,2幼鹤)

2

鸭子塘

2003-3-14

N00-6404

 

绿

幼鹤

6000

109

家庭鹤(2成鹤,2幼鹤)

3

倮倮山

2003-3-14

N00-6405

绿

 

成鹤

6750

115

家庭鹤(2成鹤,1幼鹤)

4

鸭子塘

2003-3-15

N00-6406

绿

 

成鹤

6000

112

家庭鹤(2成鹤)

5

胡叶林

2003-3-15

N00-6407

 

成鹤

6500

125

家庭鹤(2成鹤)

 

李凤山 国际鹤类基金会)

 

Banding of Black-necked Cranes at Cao Hai National Nature Reserve

 

Five Black-necked Cranes were banded at Cao Hai National Nature Reserve of Guizhou Province in winter of 2002/03.  These birds were banded with both metal and color bands, and then released right away at the site. Table 1 shows the banding information.

 

Table 1. Banding record of the Black-necked Cranes at Cao Hai in winter of 2002/03

No.

Site

Date of Banding (yy-mm-dd)

Metal Band

Color Band Combination

Age

Body Weight

(g)

Body Length

(cm)

Social Status

Left Leg

Right

Leg

 

 

1

Yazitang

2003-3-7

N00-6403

 

Green

Yellow

Adult

6250

110

Family with 2 chicks

2

Yazitang

2003-3-14

N00-6404

 

Green

Red

Young

6000

109

Family with 2 chicks

3

Luoluoshan

2003-3-14

N00-6405

Green

Yellow

 

Adult

6750

115

Family with 1 chick

4

Yazitang

2003-3-15

N00-6406

Green

Red

 

Adult

6000

112

Family without chick

5

Huyelin

2003-3-15

N00-6407

Red

Yellow

 

Adult

6500

125

Family without chick

 

(Li Fengshan, International Crane Foundation)

 

 青藏高原黑颈鹤消息(2003

 

1.青海隆宝国家级自然保护区还有黑颈鹤吗?

2003420日至519日,马鸣与英国鸟类中心的 Dr Eugene Potapov 合作对新疆、青海和西藏的鸟类状况进行了上万公里的考察。途中调查了黑颈鹤的分布与数量。515-16日在青海玉树地区的“隆宝国家级自然保护区”访问和实地调查,只遇见4-5对黑颈鹤,海拔4200-4800 m。虽然当地的藏民有良好的生活习惯和不杀生的习俗,但是保护与管理状况依然令人担忧。(1)外来民族特别是四川人的大量涌入,他们什么都吃,包括鱼、野禽、野兽等,访问得知有小孩拣野禽蛋(包括黑颈鹤的卵)拿到隆宝镇的餐馆去卖,每枚只卖1元;(2)正在进行的玉树-治多-曲麻莱公路建设,在沼泽边开山放炮,严重干扰了黑颈鹤的繁殖和栖息;(3)青海各地5月开始挖掘虫草,是外来人口迅速增加的另一个原因,他们通常吃住在野外,生活艰苦,多以野味果腹;(4)过度放牧,沼泽之中尽是牧群,包括羊群和牦牛群,根本没有黑颈鹤繁殖的地盘;(5)在青海我们访问了4个国家级的保护站,均没有见到任何工作人员,各管理站条件极差。可见这些国家级的保护区如同虚设。春季在青海的其它地方也很少见到黑颈鹤活动,只有在格尔木与曲麻莱的途中(属于可可西里无人区)见到1只黑颈鹤。

 

2. 西藏那曲-当雄有大群的黑颈鹤

西藏一向是圣洁之地。200357-11日我们翻过唐古拉山口,往来于西藏的那曲和拉萨之间,在当雄以北的沼泽之中见到200多只黑颈鹤,可能是迁徙鸟,未见有营巢的。它们三两结伙在沼泽草地上觅食,相距青藏公路只有200-400 m。海拔4300 m。这一地区的沼泽和草原因为有铁丝网围着,没有人干扰黑颈鹤的活动。还因为宗教和自然的原因,西藏的鸟类保护状况成为中国最好的地区之一。沼泽附近还有高山兀鹫(Gyps himalayensis)、赤麻鸭(Tadorna ferruginea)、大鵟(Buteo hemilasius)、红脚鹬(Tringa totanus)、渡鸦(Corvus corax)、鸲岩鷚(Prunella rubeculoides)等。但是过度放牧以及正在建设中的青藏铁路和公路可能会对湿地产生不良影响。因为这块湿地的面积并不大,峡谷的宽度也十分有限,人、畜、居民点、公路、铁路、通讯和电力电线、铁丝网、管道等,都在争夺这片空间。随着外地民工的大量涌入,黑颈鹤要在这里繁殖已经不可能。建议国家建设部门严格控制规模宏大的建设工程,尽量减少对高原湿地的侵占和破坏。

 

马鸣 (中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 830011)

 

 News of Black-necked Crane in Tibet Plateau

1.       Does any Black-necked Crane exsit at Qinghai Longbaotan National Nature Reserve?

Coorperated with Dr. Eugene Potapov, British Bird Center, the author and Dr. Eugene Potapov investigated the birds in Xingjiang, Qinghai and Tibet from April 20th to May 19th, 2003. When arrived at Longbaotan National Nature Reserve on May 15th and 16th , we found only 4~5 pairs of Black-necked Cranes at the altitude of 4200~4800m. Although the Tibetan has a fine custom and does not take animal life, but the author still worries about the crane protection at the reserve: 1. The massive immigration of non-Tibetan especially those came from Sichuan, they eat every living things including fishes, wild birds and mammals, it was said that some children took the eggs of wild birds (including the eggs of Black-necked Cranes) and sold them to the resraunants of Longbaotan, one egg only for one Yuan (RMB). 2. The Yushu-Zhiduo-Qumacai Highway is under construction, the explosion to open up a mountain nearby the marshland disturbs the breeding and dwelling of the cranes. 3. In Qinghai the excavation of Cordyceps sinensis begins in May each year, it attracts many people outside Tibet, when in digging the insects they live in the field and feed on wildlife. 4. Sheep and Yaks are overgrazed, they occupy the breeding site of cranes. 5. We visited 5 national conservation stations in Qinghai Province, none staff was found there, all the stations were in poor condition and were nominal. Except for one Black-necked Crane was found in between Geermu and Qumacai where belong to Kekexili—a depopulated zone, the crane was seldemly seen in Qinghai.

 

2.       A alrge group of Black-necked Cranes was found between Naqu and Dangxiong, Tibet

Tibet is a place of holy and pure. Two hundred more Black-necked Cranes were found by the author in a marshland to the north of Dangxiong, because that no nest was found the cranes were considered to be the migrants there. The cranes fed in a marshland in groups of 2~3 cranes, the marshland is at an altitude of 4300m and 200~400m away from the Qing-Zang Highway. For the religion and natural reasons and the marshland and grassland there were surrounded by wire meshes, the birds there were well protected. We also found Gyps himalayensis, Tadorna ferruginea, Buteo hemilasius, Tringatotanus, Corvus corax and Prunella rubeculoides nearby the marshland. The marshland is not so large, the overgrazing and the construction of Qing-Zang Highway might affect the marshland and the breeding of the crane. We hope that the departments of construction shoud do their best not to occupy and destroy the plateau wetland, when in making a large scale of construction.

 

Ma Ming  (Xingjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Academia Sinica, 830011)

 

 

台南黑脸琵鹭国际保育研讨会后记

200212月,世界上最大的黑脸琵鹭越冬地,台南的曾文溪口发生了一宗严重的意外:在9日至14日期间共有63只黑脸琵鹭出现食物中毒,其中54只死亡。同月21日和22日,再有17只中毒,其中14只死亡。200313日至4日,8只黑脸琵鹭中毒(3只死亡),

24日再有2只发现中毒死亡。死亡的黑脸琵鹭共计73只,约占已知种群数量的百分之七。

 

由于问题严重,台南县政府,台湾特有生物研究保育中心,中国生物学会(在台)在200341日和2日在台南县关子岭主办了一次黑脸琵鹭的国际保育研讨会,共同商议预防同类事件再次发生。我有幸成为列席讲者之一。

 

41日的会议主要内容是这次事件的报告,以及对死亡黑脸琵鹭解剖研究的结果。因为黑脸琵鹭深得当地民众喜爱,每天都有人到曾文溪口观察。129日清晨当地的研究人员发觉多只琵鹭举止异常,趴伏滩涂之上,马上通知当局抢救,否则事件会更严重。黑脸琵鹭紧急应变中心的祁伟廉医师认为,事发前数天文蛤偶发大量死亡,水温高故肉毒杆菌大量滋生,事发日气压变化影响鱼类在下午摄食蛤肉而中毒,因琵鹭是晚上摄食,所以琵鹭大量中毒而白鹭没受太大影响。若琵鹭尸体没有移走,可能会引发野鸭中毒的下一波。台湾师范大学的李寿先教授根据67只死亡黑脸琵鹭的粒线体DNA分析,发现不同个体间的差异度极低,推论黑脸琵鹭种群曾经历一次瓶颈。

 

42日的会议主要是讨论以后的管理问题,本人的发表论文内容以黑脸琵鹭的繁殖种群推算,近几年在台南及香港黑脸琵鹭数量递增并不是自然增长,而是黑脸琵鹭越冬种群出现集中化的表现,这令以后保护黑脸琵鹭会造成更多问题,建议多保留适合的沿海湿地,不让濒危物种过度集中;同时也强调所有黑脸琵鹭分布地域互通消息,彼此合作交流的重要性。

 

42日下午分组讨论。急救医疗组讨论的结果是:要确保紧急通报系畅通,采购抗毒血清,提升野生动物医疗救伤知识技术。保育管理组则建议:加强栖地环境监测,鼓励渔民报告异常情况,黑脸琵鹭不宜过度集中,所以应保存更多沿海湿地,编写保护行动纲领,加强区内合作。与会的台南县县长苏焕智表示支持。台湾农委会也明确表示支持编写黑脸琵鹭的保护行动纲领。

 

1990年代初,台南县曾文溪口的七股(也就是黑脸琵鹭的主要栖息地)面临工业开发,而且当地一般老百姓也反对设立保护区;当时很多人的态度比较悲观,认为破坏不可避免。但在各方面的努力下,七股和毗邻的四草都先后设了保护区,台南本土的保护活动也很活跃。现在台南人人都以有黑脸琵鹭到台南越冬为荣。这改写了“中国人只管赚钱,不关心自然“的片面看法,对其他省市应该是个很好的启示。黑脸琵鹭中毒事件,可能只是以后保护更上层楼的一个小插曲。

 

陈承彦(日本野鸟学会)

 

Report on the International Symposium on Black-faced Spoonbill Conservation

In December 2002, a serious tragedy broke out at the Tsangwen Estuary, Tainan: the site with the biggest wintering population of Black-faced Spoonbill. From 9 to 14 December, 63 Black-faced Spoonbills were found poisoned by botulism. 54 birds died. On 21 and 22 December, another 17 birds were found infected and 14 more birds died. Smaller incidents followed on 3 to 4 January 2003 (8 birds poisoned and 3 died). Two more birds found dead on 4 February 2003. The total death toll is 73 birds, about 7% of the known population of this species.

 

Because of this serious incident, The Tainan County Government, Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute and the Biological Society of China co-organized an international symposium at Guanziling, Tainan County on 1 and 2 April 2003. I have the honor to participate this important meeting.

 

There were detailed reports on this incident, actions taken and post-mortem results of the Black-faced Spoonbills at the symposium of 1 April. Black-faced Spoonbills are beloved by local people that the tragedy was noted at the very morning of the incident, when birdwatchers went to the site. Dr. William Chyi of the Tainan County Black-faced Spoonbill Emergency Center suspects a change in the atmospheric pressure in the afternoon of 8 December cause a change of feeding behavior of fish in the ponds where large number of dead clams and warm water temperature in previous days resulted in high concentration of Clostridium botulinum. Fish ate clam meat in late afternoon and the toxin passed on the spoonbills, which feed at night. This may explain why other fish-eating birds such as egrets were not seriously affected by this incident. Had the carcasses of the spoonbills were not removed in time, it would have triggered a normal botulism outbreak to other bird species. Dr. Li Shou-hsian of Taiwan Normal Univeristy studied the mitochondrial DNA of 67 dead birds are found the variation of the birds is extremely low. This suggests the Black-faced Spoonbill population went through a population bottleneck some time in recent past.

 

On 2 April, the symposium focused on what is to be done to prevent similar incident reoccur. I made a presentation that based on the breeding success rate and field observation, the big increase in wintering birds in Tainan and Hong Kong in recent years are not due to natural increase but concentration of wintering birds. This trend of concentration of wintering birds will bring more conservation problems in the future. We should preserve more tidal wetlands for the wintering spoonbills and keep a close communication and cooperation amongst important wintering sites.

 

In the afternoon of 2 April the participants were divided into two groups to discuss recommendations for future actions: the medical group proposed a good emergency information system to be established, antiserum should be available and medical workers should be trained to improve their ability to handle crisis. The conservation group suggested to establish a good monitoring system, encourage fish farmers to report any abnormalities, Black-faced Spoonbills should not be concentrated to just one site so more sites in coastal area should be preserved, conservation action plan should be drafted and regional cooperation should be encouraged. Mr Su Huan-chi, the Magistrate of Tainan County, who attended the meeting, pledged to support to recommendations. The Council of Agriculture also pledged to support the drafting of an Action Plan for conservation of the Black-faced Spoonbills in Taiwan.

 

In the early 1990s, when the wintering ground of Black-faced Spoonbills was facing the threat of industrial development and local opposition of conservation, many felt pessimistic on the long-term conservation of this species. However, after all these years and hard work of many devoted people, Chi-ku and Si-tsau at the Tsangwen Estuary were protected, and local conservation movement is thriving in Tainan. Now Tainan people are proud of their wintering Black-faced Spoonbills. I hope this will give a good encouragement to other Chinese conservationists.

 

Simba ChanWild Bird Society of Japan

台湾黑脸琵鹭近况

Dear all,

 

You might have heard the unfortunate news that 73 Black-faced Spoonbill

died of botulism in Tainan, Taiwan last December. At that time some sick

Black-faced Spoonbills were caught and kept at a rehabilitation center. The

birds had recovered and were released on 18 February 2003. They were banded

with color and metal bands.

 

The followings are the numbers and color combinations of the birds (number

of the metal band - number on the large brown band on the right leg - color

combination on the left leg):

 

metal ring       right leg       left leg    

 

H01571          T  20           AbRd      

L00022          T  21           AbYe      

H01572          T  22           YeAb      

H01573          T  23           RdAb      

H01574          T  24           GnRd      

H01575          T  25           GnAb      

H01576          T  26           BrYe      

H01577          T  27           AbBr      

H01578          T  28           AbGn      

H01589          T  29           YeAb       not yet released

H01591          T  30           YeRd      

H01592          T  31           YeGn      

H01593          T  32           YeBr      

H01594          T  33           GnBr       not yet released

H01595          T  34           RdBr

H01596          T  35           BrAb

H01597          T  36           BrRd

 

On the left leg: Ab denotes Air Blue, Br denotes Brown, Gn denotes Green,

Rd denotes Red and Ye denotes Yellow.

 

Please note that the birds were banded with a large BROWN band numbered

from T20 to T36 on the right leg, and two color bands of different

combinations on the left. Apparently the Taiwanese did not obtained

suitable color bands (blue) when the birds were banded.

 

Please note that BLUE should still be the color used for color banding

Black-faced Spoonbill in Taiwan.

 

The information above is kindly provided by Mr. Yao Cheng-te of the Taiwan

Endemic Species Research Center.

 

Best regards,

 

Simba Chan

Wild Bird Society of Japan

澳门水鸟

澳门的地理位置

澳门地处东经113°31’45”--113°35’43”,北纬22°06’29”--22°13’01”,在珠江三角洲(Zhujiang Delta)的南端,位于珠江与西江支流之间,东隔伶仃洋,北接珠江三角洲。西江支流流经澳门半岛之西,澳门与湾仔遥遥相对。西江支流右有小横琴、大横琴与湾仔,左有澳门半岛、凼仔岛(Taipa)与路环岛(Coloane)。澳门与香港共扼珠江出口,且相隔珠江约60公里,与香港遥望相对。凼仔岛距离澳门半岛约2km,而距路环岛约有5km1991年澳门半岛面积6.5平方公里、凼仔岛面积4.0平方公里与路环岛面积7.6平方公里,总面积约18.1平方公里。至2002年澳门半岛面积8.5平方公里、凼仔岛面积6.2平方公里、路环岛面积7.6平方公里及路凼间填海面积5.5平方公里,总面积约27.8平方公里。澳门半岛与凼仔岛于1974年与1998年筑建两座桥彼此相通,凼仔岛与路环岛则于1968年有陆路互相联接,这三个小岛合称澳门(Macao)。

澳门沿海滩涂

澳门位于西江河口的东部,珠江出海口的西部,属于珠江的西群海岛其中一个小岛,在珠江的下游,位于背风浪区。由于该区河流众多,所以每年有大量的沙泥经此倾入海中,或沉积澳门沿岸区域,使得澳门沿岸海水混浊。潮汐弱,海浪平缓,水浅而海域狭窄,因此造成澳门海岸线活动频繁,是以加速沿海滩涂扩大。 其中凼仔及路环西部沙泥淤积较为显著,尤其在1968年路环岛与凼仔岛之间筑建联贯公路后,在公路西侧形成一个〝泻湖〞,遂使淤泥沉积该区更为深厚,能适宜红树林植物在此大量生长,也就形成独特功能的红树林生态系统。

澳门位于珠江与西江下游之出海口,河流较多,邻近岛屿星罗棋布,有降低流水速度的作用,遂使邻近岛屿沿海淤泥屯积严重。再者,澳门位于背风浪区,造成澳门沿海滩涂广阔,遂使岛与岛之间位置较接近,填海造陆可将岛与岛之间直接联系,路联贯公路是其中一例。

1968年路环岛与仔岛的联贯公路筑成后,使西部近十字门水道处形成〝泻湖〞,以致潮汐弱,西江及珠江所挟带大量的淤泥在此沉积,适宜红树植物的生长,直至1992年路凼湿地拥有红树林植物总面积约64ha

1989年笔者在澳门沿海湿地研究底栖动物时,在路红树林沼泽的中滩发现几只黑脸琵鹭Platalea minor正在觅食。原红树林中滩是一养蚝场,蚝民的活动常干扰琵鹭的栖息与觅食,所以琵鹭经常改变觅食位置。过去澳门滩涂广阔,泥滩面积约1020ha,约占全澳门海滩面积的89%,泥滩主要分布于路南至西北沿岸。琵鹭拥有广阔的觅食区域,相比现今湿地的干扰性降低,造成日后有依恋性的黑脸琵鹭在路湿地渡冬及增加种群的原因。

澳门红树林滩涂广阔,生物资源丰富,泥滩中不同潮间带能孕育各种底栖动物。据过去笔者在澳门沿海滩涂的监察及研究;软体动物有10多种、贝壳类约40多种、螃蟹类30多种、沿海鱼类占澳门鱼类的23.84%,是构成了澳门滩涂的生物多样性,是吸引黑脸琵鹭群聚渡冬的重要原因。

笔者对黑脸琵鹭的研究及调查,开始于1990年,并记录这种候鸟在澳门沿海滩涂渡冬的状况,可惜于1992年因红树林开始被砍掘,黑脸琵鹭被迫步出红树林的外滩。1992年至2003年,该片湿地陆续进行填海工程及鱼民在湿地的过度捕捞, 1999年路红树林终于全部毁灭。路湿地正是红树林被毁灭后,由潮间带之中、外滩涂所形成一片芦苇湿地,面积约有80多公顷,是黑脸琵鹭主要觅食及栖息地。

2003430日于路凼湿地发现第一只在其右脚上套有橙红色旗的弯咀滨鹬Calidris ferruginea与其同类约有18只,它们停留湿地约有一星期。

去年(20024月中曾经出现的一只红胸滨鹬 Calidris ruficollis,在其右脚上套有橙红色旗,在200357日它重临路凼湿地,直至现时仍在路凼湿地栖息及觅食,今年在最高峰期的红胸滨鹬约有300多只。

                                                                                                                                     梁华[梁之华] ( 澳门 )

 

Macao waterbirds

              

Location of Macao

   Macao is located at113°31’45”--113°35’43” East and 22°06’29”--22°13’01” North, towards the southwestern end of the Pearl River (Zhujiang) Delta, between the tributaries of the West River and the Pearl River. To its East is Lingding sea(伶丁洋)and to the North is the Zhujiang Delta.The tributary of the WestRiver flows to the west of the Macao peninsula which is close to Lapa island(灣仔)With Montanha island(大橫琴) and D.joao island(小橫琴) on the left, Taipa Island and Coloane Island on the right .

The mouth of the Pearl River is flanked by Macao and Hong Kong which is 60 km away from each other. Macao peninsula is 2 km away from Taipa Island and 5 km away from Coloane Island.

In 1991, Macao peninsula had an area of 6.5 square kilometers, Taipa island was 4.0 square kilometers, and Coloane island was 7.6 square kilometers. The total area of Macao was 18.1 square kilometers. In 2002, Macao peninsula had an area of 8.5 square kilometers, Taipa island was 6.2 square kilometers and Coloane island was still 7.6 square kilometers. The reclaimed land between Taipa and Coloane had an area of 5.5 square kilometers. The total area of Macao was 27.8 square kilometers Two bridges were built in 1974 and 1994 respectively to allow traffic between Macao peninsula and Taipa Island, while the Taipa-Coloane Causeway was built in 1968to connect the two Islands. These 3 places are collectively called Macao.

 

Coastal wetlands of Macao

Macao is situated at the eastern side of the estuary of the West River, and  west of  where the Pearl River meets the sea. It is a small island belonging to theWestern Pearl River Archipelago, in a leeward region at the lower course of the Pearl River. As there are lots of rivers in the region, large  amounts of sediments are either washed from there into the sea, or deposited on the coastal region of Macao, causing murky water around its coast, weak tides and an active littoral zone. Eventually, the wetlands in Macao increased,with shallow water and shrinking surface area at sea.13 Especially, in Taipa island and the west of Coloane island, where serious silting occur; in 1968, the construction of the Taipa-Coloane causeway caused the formation of a lagoon on its west side, which further thickened the accumulation of silt. Consequently, mangrove plants started to spread in abundance and form a special mangrove wetland ecosystem in Macao.

 

Macao is situated at the estuary where the Pearl River and the West River meets the sea. With many neighbouring islands and rivers, the current speed is relatively low causing serious silting to occur at the coastal region of these islands. Moreover, Macao is on the  leeward side of the estuary which further speeds up the expansion of its coastal wetlands. The distances between the islands are becoming closer. With reclamation, the islands are beginning to connect with each other.  The reclamation for construction of the causeway linking Coloane-Taipa  causeway in 1968, is one such example. After completion of the works, the  western side nearest to the crossed water passage formed a lagoon which weakened the tides. Silt from the West River and the Pearl River began to accumulate there and caused the formation of mangrove. In 1992, the mangrove vegetation covered an area of 64 hectares.8

In 1989, I discovered a few Black-faced Spoonbills feeding in the middle of the mudflat by the mangrove in Coloane when I was researching the fauna distribution in Macao's wetlands. This mudflat used to have commercial oyster pond which disrupted the activities of the Spoonbills. However, at that time, Coloane and Taipa had a large area of wetlands, 89% of which was mudflat of around 1,020 hectares, distributed mainly from the south to the north-west coast of Coloane.9 This provided a large and open space for the Spoonbills to rest and feed at different location with relatively low disturbance. As a result, the wetlands in Coloane became a habitual gathering place for these Spoonbills and their numbers increased. The mudflats associated with Macao's mangroves have different layers of deposit that are rich in organic matter which can support different organisms. According to my observation and research on Macau’s wetlands, they could support more than 10 species of molluscs, over 40 species of shellfish, 30 more species of crab, and coastal fish that comprises 23.84 % of Macao's fish supply.20 Hence, the biodiversity of Macau’s wetlands are able to attract many Spoonbills to winter here.

The activity and condition of the Black-faced Spoonbills wintering in the wetlands of Coloane and Taipa have been observed and recorded in the following year, 1990, until 1992 when the logging of mangrove started. The Spoonbills were forced to use the outer mudflat. However, construction and over-fishing on the wetlands from 1992 to 2003 have finally destroyed all the mangroves in Coloane in 1999. In fact, the middle and outer mudflats of the destroyed mangroves have formed the wetland of Coloane, more than 80% of which becomes the major foraging and wintering site of the Spoonbills.

On April 30th, 2003, a Curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) with an orange-red band on it's right leg was first discovered at the Taipa-Coloane Wetlands, there are 18 birds. They stayed at the wetlands for about a week.

Last year,on mid-April, 2002, a red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis) with an orange-yellow band on its right leg was discovered.  This year, on May 7th, 2003, it revisited the Taipa-Coloane wetlands and it has been roosting and foraging there till now.   At its height, the number of red –necked stint (Calidris ruficollis) has reached  up to 300 birds this year.

About the author

Member of the 4th editorial committee for the series of research on snakes and frogs in China

Life member of international society for mangrove ecosystems (isme)

Honorary director of guangdong zoological society

Executive director of Macao association for promotion of science and technology

Member of China zoological society

Master of China ecological society

Ph.D  Zoology

Address: Estrada Da Victoria No.26, 5L Macau

Tel: 561284(H)  6878588(M)

简历

《中国蛇蛙研究丛书》第四届编辑委员

国际红树林生态系协会永久会员

广东省动物学会名誉理事

中国动物学会会员

中国生态学会会员

博士(后)

地址:澳门得胜马路265L

 

                                                                      Leung Va [Leung Chee Va] Macau

 

缅甸的鹤和其他水鸟

 

缅甸是毗邻云南,西藏的西南邻邦。但长久以来跟外界很少联系,外界可说对缅甸的鸟类情况一无所知。我从2001年开始,因进行一项缅甸林业部与日本环境省的湿地调查,曾三次到缅甸中部,北部的湿地考察,共逗留了两个多月时间,记录了不少缅甸鸟类的资料。在这里做个简报供各位参考。

 

缅甸到现在为止纪录过的鹤只有两种。一种是大概全国都有的赤颈鹤。我虽然在2001年底到过赤颈鹤今年又繁殖纪录的印雷湖(Inle Lake),今年初也到过据说有二十多只赤颈鹤的印多吉湖(Indawgyi Lake),但都没机会看到。

 

另一种鹤是灰鹤,它在缅甸中部与北部常见,南迁可达曼德勒市近郊延叶湖(Yemyet Lake)。我们的考察队在20012月看到170多只,200111月底路过也随意数到好几十只,说明这里是一个主要越冬地。从这地方往北走,灰鹤的数量愈来愈多。在20031月底,我们在伊洛瓦底江上游接近塔罗吉镇(Talawgyi)的沙洲上扎营,数到超过1385只灰鹤飞回河滩的夜栖地。在离这个地点以北几十公里,卡钦州首府密支那市近郊,我们也看到数百只灰鹤在田里觅食。

缅北的灰鹤都是越冬鸟,他们的繁殖地我估计是在青藏高原。他们与在云贵高原越冬的灰鹤很可能是来自同一个种群。

 

至于黑颈鹤,传闻很多,到现在还没有实证。在缅北接近中缅边境的地区可能有越冬的黑颈鹤,但到伊洛瓦底江流域一带就不大可能了。

 

以下按地点介绍一下其他水鸟供大家参考:

 

印多吉湖(Indawgyi Lake)

在缅甸北部的卡钦州,是缅甸两大淡水湖之一。由于地处偏僻,交通不便,经济开发的压力还不算大,这里不但是水鸟的乐园,也有一些缅甸特有的鱼类。我们的考察队在20031月下旬在这里做了四天野外调查,见到的水鸟很多,其中值得一记的是一些濒危鸟类如斑嘴鹈鹕(所谓“指名亚种“,记录到47只),小秃鹳(17只),黑颈鹳(1只),准濒危鸟类如蛇鹈(71只),白眼潜鸭(809只)等。我们也记录到406只灰雁,这可能是东南亚分布的南限。此外,鸬鹚有262只。两年前印多吉湖的人员找到一只在青海湖环志的鸬鹚,这说明缅北很多越冬水鸟应都在青藏高原繁殖。

 

伊洛瓦底江流域(密支那至八莫)

2003127日至22日间,我们从密支那出发,沿江到八莫(以往滇缅公路上的一个重镇),如上记述,看到了以千计的灰鹤,也记录到不少其他水鸟,一下是数量较多和较特别的几种:斑嘴鹈鹕(12只),鸬鹚(近1000只),蛇鹈(65只),黑鹳(65只),白颈鹳(1只),小秃鹳(2只),斑头雁(3230只),赤麻鸭(5423只),赤膀鸭(2367只),灰燕鸻(近8000只)。

这一段伊洛瓦底江离云南的德宏州不超过一百公里,虽说地形有差异,估计有部分种类如国内久未纪录的蛇鹈,斑嘴鹈鹕等,在云南境内可能还有。国内还没有确实纪录的白颈鹳,也很可能在云南西部有分布。(我记得年前在昆明动物研究所,杨岚教授给我看过一号标本,但因年代久远,没有标签,不能确定是否在国内采集。)最后,白背兀鹫虽非水鸟,但因已被列为国际极危鸟种,近年又没有国内纪录,我在21日在八莫东面的太平河离云南只有二三十公里的地点看到了2只。这表明在云南西部应该还有这种兀鹫。

 

                                                                                    陈承彦 ( 日本野鸟学会国际部 )

Cranes and other waterbirds in Myanmar

Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) is the southwestern neighbor to China. Due to the prolonged isolation, very little information is available on the avifauna of this country. From 2001, I have conducted three wetlands surveys in central and northern Myanmar on behalf of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan and the Forest Department of Myanmar. Here is a brief summary which I hope will be useful for the reference of waterbird researchers.

 

Cranes in Myanmar

So far there only two species of cranes have been recorded in Myanmar: Sarus Crane is reported throughout the country. Although I have been to Inle Lake and Indawgyi Lake, where Sarus Cranes had been reported, regrettably I could not find this bird.

 

The other species is the Eurasian Crane. It is a rather common winter visitor in northern and central Myanmar (southward to Yemyet Lake in the vicinity of Mandalay.) Our survey team saw several dozen to more than 170s birds in February and November 2001 at Yemyet Lake. More Eurasian Cranes were found north of Yemyet Lake: At least 1385 birds were counted on a sandbank in the Ayeyawady (Irrawaddy) River near Talawgyi in late January 2003. The site is south of Myitkyina, where we saw hundreds of Eurasian Cranes feeding in paddy field. The wintering Eurasian Cranes in northern Myanmar probably belong to the same population that winter in Yunnan and Guizhou. They are probably breeding in the Tibetan plateau.

 

There are some unconfirmed reports of Black-necked Cranes in Myanmar. Although this species might winter at the bordering areas of Myanmar and China, it is very unlikely to be found in the Ayeyawady basin.

 

Other waterbirds in northern Myanmar:

Indawgyi Lake is one of the two big freshwater lakes in Myanmar. The area is quite remote and economic development is low. It is not only a haven to waterbirds but also have some endemic Myanmar fish species. We spent four days at Indawgyi in late January 2003 and recorded many waterbirds. Species of interest are: Globally threatened Spot-billed Pelicans (47 birds recorded), Lesser Adjutants (17 birds), Black-necked Stork (1 bird), near-threatened Oriental Darters (71 birds), Ferruginous Ducks (809 birds). 406 Greylag Geese were recorded – northern Myanamr is probably the southern most wintering area of Greylag Geese. In addition, 262 Great Cormorants were seen. Two years ago rangers at Indawgyi recovered a Great Cormorant banded at Qinghai Lake. This suggests the breeding ground of many waterbirds in northern Myanmar are likely to be on the Tibetan plateau.

 

Ayeyawady basin (Myitkyina to Bhamo)

From 27 January to 2 February 2003, we sailed from Myitkyina to Bhamo (A famous town of the ‘Burma Road’). Apart from more than 1,000 cranes, we recorded many other waterbirds. Here are some interesting records: Spot-billed Pelicans (12 birds), Great Cormorants (almost 1,000 birds), Oriental Darters (65 birds), Black Storks (65 birds), Woolly necked Stork (1 bird), Lesser Adjutants (2 birds), Bar-headed Geese (3230 birds), Ruddy Shelducks (5423 birds), Gadwalls (2367 birds), Little Pratincoles (almost 8000 birds)

This section of the Ayeyawady is less than 100 km from the border to Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan. Although the topography of Yunnan is different from Myanmar, some species that have not been recorded in China in recent years (e.g. Oriental Darter, Spot-billed Pelican) could probably exist in Yunnan. Woolly necked Stork has not been recorded in China, but it is quite likely some birds might exist in southwestern Myanmar. Years ago Prof. Yang Lan of the Kunming Institute for Zoology showed me an old specimen of this species without tag. It is not sure whether the bird was collected in China.

Although White-rumped Vulture is not a waterbird, as it is not regarded as a Critaclly Endangered Species and I saw two birds east of Bhamo, only about 20 km from Yunnan, I believe this species can still be found in Yunnan.

 

Simba Chan Wild Bird Society of Japan

自然育雏研究取得初步成果

1999年陕西举行的《国际鹮保护研讨会》上,鉴于北京动物园、陕西洋县鹮繁育中心和洋县鹮栖息地的鹮种群快速增长,种群数量迅速增加,为了使得鹮种群健康发展,恢复鹮野外分布地,鹮的野外重引入已经引起与会代表的关注。但在当时人工饲养条件下,没有一对鹮具有自然孵化育雏的能力。为此,北京动物园从2000年专题立项进行《鹮自然育雏试验研究》。课题采用鹮自然孵化育雏、白鹮义亲育雏两种办法。孵化和育雏期间,用闭路电视进行监控。发现异常,及时采取补救措施。2002年一对鹮产卵,进行自然孵化,出雏一只,育活一只。同时还准备4对白鹮用于义亲育雏。其中只有一对白鹮的出雏时间与鹮接近,将自然孵化与机器孵化相结合,把即将出壳的鹮卵送给了这对白鹮育雏,获得成功。2003年北京动物园继续重复试验。目前一对鹮孵化出雏两只,育活一只(至5月20日已31日龄)。另一对白鹮正在育雏一只鹮。经过3年的努力探索,本研究已取得初步成果,为今后进行鹮野外回归奠定了基础。

                                        刘斌(北京动物园,北京 100044)

A preliminary achievement in naturally rearing the nestling of Crested Ibis

With the rapid increasing populations of Crested Ibis at Beijing Zoo, Shaanxi Yangxian Crested Ibis Breding Center and Yangxian Crested Ibis habitat, the re-intraduction of the bird attracted the attention of the delegates of “International Workshop on the Crested Ibis Conservation” held in 1999. At that time the bird was artificially reared, none pair was capable of incubating and rearing their offsprings. Since 2000, Beijing Zoo set a special topic “A test in naturally rearing the nestling of Crested Ibis” to resolve the problem. The eggs were incubated by their parents or by their foster parents—Oriental Ibis, incubation and nestling rearing were controlled by closed circuit. Been looked after by the parents one nestling was hatched and survived naturally in 2002, the durations of incubation by prarents and by foster parents are similar. A nearly hatching egg was incubated and then the nestling was reared successfully by forster parents in 2002. The test was repeated at Beijing Zoo in 2003, two pairs succeeded in incubating and rearing their offsprings, now each pair has one nestling. Till May 20th one nestling was 31 days old. The preliminary achievement of the programme will lay a fundation for re-intraduction of the bird in the future.

Liu Bin (Beijing Zoo, Beijing 10044,)

  哈尔滨动物园笼养大鸨繁殖取得重大成果

哈尔滨动物园自1997年开始,经过5年多的时间,经过3个繁殖周期,对笼养大鸨繁殖进行了全面细致的研究。终于在大鸨人工饲养条件下产卵、受精、人工孵化、人工育雏及雏鸟的生长发育等方面的研究上取得了成功,同时还对大鸨的骨骼解剖,羽毛微观结构观察及成分分析,生殖系统解剖、消化系统解剖及消化系统组织学疾病防治进行深入的研究。从而 为大鸨在迁地保护和扩大种群方面提供基础保证和科学的依据。也为进一步深入的研究大鸨奠定了良好的基础。

 2002年12月17日,由哈尔滨市科技局组织召开了,“笼养大鸨繁殖的研究”课题的专家鉴定会。专家们在听取了课题组的工作报告和技术报告,进行了认真的分析和论证。得到如下鉴定意见:

1、大鸨(otis tarda tarda)属国家I级保护动物,是世界濒危物种,进行人工饲养繁殖,已成为保护濒危鸟类的重要手段。该项目历时5年对大鸨雏鸟进行跟踪实验研究,并于2001年首次繁殖成功雏鸟2只,成活率达100%。对大鸨这种神经质鸟类的人工驯化、人工繁殖提供了成熟的技术,对大鸨的迁地保护具有十分重要的理论和实践意义。

2、该课题在国内外首次对大鸨羽毛的微观结构及成份分析、骨骼的解剖、消化系统的解剖、生殖系统的解剖、消化系统组织学以及17种疾病的防治进行了较为全面系统的研究。

3、该研究采取了人工模拟自然生态环境,科学合理的制定了饲养标准,形成了大鸨人工驯养繁育的成熟技术,为北方地区的人工饲养条件下大鸨大规模驯养繁殖提供了可借鉴和推广的技术指标。

综上所述,该研究课题选题恰当、方法先进、数据可靠、技术路线合理、结果正确,对进一步保护好濒危鸟类具有重要的理论和现实意义,研究成果涉及鸟类的多个领域,达到国际先进水平。其中人工孵化、人工育雏达到国际领先水平。

建议:1、开展分子生物学研究,搞好谱系登记工作。

      2、进一步总结制定人工饲养技术规程。

                                                                                           田秀华(哈尔滨动物园)

 

The Important Progress on the Breeding of Captive Great Bustard Otis tarda tardain Harbin Zoo

From 1997,  the reproduction techniques of captive Great Bustard were conducted in the captive condition in Harbin Zoo.  During the 3 breeding  cycle, we  have research successfully  on the laying eggs,  fecundation, artificial  incubation,  artificial fostering nestlings , and the nestling  growth in captivity.  We  also studied  on  the skeleton anatomy,  feather micro-structure observations and the composition analysis,  reproduction system analysis, anatomy and histology of digest system , and diseases prevention.  These researches provide the basic and scientific information for ,further research, extu-conservation, and population enlargement of Great Bustard.

December 17, 2002,   Harbin S&T Bureau organized the experts to examine and approval the project of  breeding of captive Great Bustards .  Reviewing the work reports and the technique reports , the experts considered that this research has made the great progresses as followings:

1Great Bustards is the  1st class protected animal in China and the endangered bird worldwide. Raising and breeding in captivity is the important measure for Great Bustards conservation.  This group spent 5 years to track and research the nestlings, and 2 nestlings were bred successfully in 2001 , the survival rate reached 100%.   This results provide the mature techniques for domestication and breeding in captivity,  and have the important theoretic and practical significances. 

2. The group , first in worldwide,  studied  on  the skeleton anatomy,  feather micro-structure observations and the composition analysis,  reproduction system analysis, anatomy and histology of digest system , and prevention and control for 17 diseases.  

3. This project conducted the artificial simulated natural environment,  scientific and reasonable feeding standards , and mature breeding techniques for captive great bustards.  These techniques and experiences can be use in the northern China to raise and breed the great bustards in captivity.

In summary , this project used the advanced methods and got the accurate data and the correct conclusions, and has  the important theoretic and practical significances for endangered birds conservation.  This research involved several study areas, and reached the international advanced level. The techniques of artificial incubation , and artificial fostering nestlings  have reached the international top level.

The experts also suggested that the group should apply the molecule biological techniques for future research, start the works for pedigree register,  and summary the perfect the artificial breeding regulations.

 

Tian Xiu-Hua (Harbin Zoo,)

2003年获准小额基金项目

2003年中国鹤类研究基金共收到项目申请6份。4月17日中国鹤类研究基金管理小组在北京对申请项目做了认真评审。以下两项获得批准:

1)安庆沿江湖群越冬白头鹤栖息地特征研究(安徽大学    周立志 编号013)

2)白鹤迁徙期在吉林的栖息地选择及种群动态研究(东北师范大学  王海涛 编号014)

2003 China Crane Grant Project

       Six applications for 2003 China Crane Grant Project were reviewed and two of them were approved: (1) Wintering habitat of Hooded Crane on the lakes in Anqing. (No.13, ZHOU Li-Zhi, Anhui University )  (2) Habitat selection of Siberian Crane in Jilin (No.14, WANG Hai-Tao, Northeast China Normal University ).

东方白鹳保护级别之我见

东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana 是仅分布在亚洲东部的大型涉禽,其数量约为3000只,属全球性濒危物种,被《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(简称CITES,中国政府于1981年加入此公约)列入附录Ⅰ,也被《世界自然保护联盟2000年受胁物种红色名录》、《亚洲鸟类红皮书》和《中国濒危动物红皮书:鸟类》列为濒危种,这说明国际公约、国际保护组织和中国学术界对其受胁状况十分关注,置于较高的受胁等级是理所当然的。

林业部和农业部在1989年发布了经国务院批准的《国家重点保护野生动物名录》,其中白鹳Ciconia ciconia 被列为国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物,由于当时东方白鹳这一名称在国内尚未被广泛接受,通常认为白鹳就是指现在的东方白鹳,为此政府各级主管部门和相关团体及人员做了大量保护和研究工作,多次参加东方白鹳的国际学术研讨会,交流经验、开展协作、共同提高。

然而,在国家林业局2000年发布的《国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的陆生野生动物名录》中,却列有东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana,我对此深感困惑不解,近期发现把东方白鹳放在如此低的保护级别,在管理和执法等方面都会产生一些不利的影响,为此特撰写本文表述我的意见,供主管部门和同行参考。

我国鸟类的名称和分类工作,一直都是以郑作新先生的著作为依据的。国家重点保护野生动物名录的制定工作从七十年代后期开始,直到发布前共经过十多年的内部试行和修改,在所有见到的文件中,被保护野生动物的名称都是以种为分类单元,只使用拉丁文的双名制写出属名和种名,不使用三名制,不写出亚种名,即不以种和亚种为分类单元。郑作新先生在其关于中国鸟类分布名录早期的专著(1955,1976,1987)中,都是把中国的白鹳Ciconia ciconia分成新疆亚种Ciconia ciconia asiatica和东北亚种Ciconia ciconia boyciana这两个亚种。从分类学的角度来看,对多型种而言,只写出种名,无疑就意味着包括两个亚种在内。从中国的现实来看,白鹳新疆亚种(又叫中亚亚种)在我国仅分布在新疆西南部的莎车和喀什一带,虽然在100年前比较常见,但现在早已绝迹,有的专家经过调查后得出的结论是中亚白鹳在新疆消失的年代大约为1980年前后(马鸣,2001)。既然白鹳在中国只有两个亚种,其中新疆亚种已消失不见,剩下的岂不是只有东北亚种Ciconia ciconia boyciana了吗?由此推论国家重点保护野生动物名录中列出的白鹳Ciconia ciconia,只能是白鹳东北亚种而不是其它。对种和亚种的同物异名,为避免混淆,CITES早有预见,在其所列东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana名称之后,指明Ciconia boyciana亦作Ciconia ciconia boyciana

现在,国际上将白鹳分成两个亚种,即指名亚种(又叫欧洲白鹳)Ciconia ciconia ciconia和中亚亚种(新疆亚种)Ciconia ciconia asiatica;指名亚种分布在欧洲和非洲,总数约为500,000万只;中亚亚种分布在哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、阿富汗等中亚相邻国家,在印度越冬,总数3,000只(Rose and Scott,1997),近期上升到4,350只(Delany and Scott,2002)。斯温豪(Swinhoe,R.)在1873年定名时就把东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana当成一个新种发表,有人如沃雷(Vaurie,C.)1965年在《古北区的鸟类》一书中予以承认,但多数学者未能接受这一观点,一直把东方白鹳作为白鹳的1个亚种即东方亚种Ciconia ciconia,直到八十年代初,国际上才公认东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana应作为独立的物种从白鹳Ciconia ciconia中划分出来。有鉴于此,在拙作“世界濒危鸟类-东方白鹳”一文中,我曾对白鹳的种和亚种在国际上的分类变化进行了介绍,希望我国尽早使用东方白鹳这一名称。郑作新先生在后期的著作(1994,2000)中,已将东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana单独列出。

综上所述,为了更好地做好东方白鹳的保护工作,建议主管部门考虑恢复东方白鹳作为国家重点Ⅰ级保护野生动物的保护级别,从中国学术界沿用鸟类名称的历史和国际上使用东方白鹳拉丁名称的分类演变来看,《国家重点保护野生动物名录》中使用的双名制白鹳Ciconia ciconia就是现在的东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana。当初制定名录人员深知在中国不可能有欧洲白鹳Ciconia ciconia分布,所以我们就不能承认欧洲白鹳是中国的国家Ⅰ级保护野生动物,而把真正应该保护的东方白鹳放在与山斑鸠、白头鹎、麻雀等较低的同等级别,如果是这样,那么有人若是毒死或打死5只东方白鹳,在量刑上是不是应该和打死5只山斑鸠同等对待?我们也不能采取把《国家重点保护野生动物名录》中的白鹳Ciconia ciconia删除,再将东方白鹳Ciconia boyciana补入的办法;最好能由国家主管部门发一文件,说明由于采用双名制及亚种提升为种等原因,《国家重点保护野生动物名录》中的白鹳就是现在的东方白鹳,这样两全其美,不妨一试,具体名称的更换留待全部名录调整时进行。

 

王岐山(安徽大学生命科学学院,合肥,230039)

 

My opinion on the threaten category of Oriental White Stork

In “The list of China important protected wildlife” issued in 1989, Ciconia ciconia was listed in the 1st class, for that the list adopted binomialism, no subspecies was listed. In 1980s the nomenclature and classification of birds in China all based on the monographs (1955, 1976 and 1987) of Prof. Zheng Zuo-Xin, during that time C. ciconia was devided into C. c. asiatiaca and C. c. boyciana. C. c. asiatiaca only distributed in Xinjiang and was very rare, while C. c. boyciana distributed in East China and its population size reached certain scale, it means that the Ciconia ciconia in the list maily referred to C. c. boyciana. In 1990s, Chinese academic circles adopted the international classification view, to promote C. c. boyciana into C. boyciana, that is to say that the  C. boyciana  of 1990s is the C. ciconia which in the list of 1980s. Hence I think that the state Forestry Administration put C. boyciana in a lower threaten category in the “List of China protected beneficial or economically, scientifically valuable terrestrial wildlife” in 2000 is unsuitable. I suggest that the department in chief should consider returning C. boyciana to the 1st class of China important wildlife.

 

Wang Qi-Shan (School of Life Sciences, Anhui University)

 

中国东北地区鸟类新记录---流苏鹬

流苏鹬属鸻形目鹬科。繁殖于欧亚大陆北部,西至英国、挪威、瑞典,往北到西伯利亚东北角的楚科奇半岛,南至德国、荷兰、中亚吉尔吉斯平原和阿尔泰山。越冬于非洲、东南亚和澳大利亚。迁徙期间经过我国新疆西部、西藏南部、吉林西部、河北、江苏、山东、广东、福建、香港和台湾。部分留在广东、福建、香港和台湾越冬。

2002530日上午,笔者陪同《GEF中国湿地多样性保护及合理利用》项目国际专家-德国鸟类专家Axel Braunlich博士在三江自然保护区进行鸟类调查时,在保护区鸭绿河站辖区的新颜村东北部 (48°1015″N, 133°5209″E) 观察到1只鹬,其特征为体长约30cm,腹大,背驼,颈长,头显得较小,头顶暗褐色,嘴短而微向下弯曲,脚长,粉红色;羽缘淡棕色,后颈浅褐色,背、肩及三级飞羽褐黑色,腰、尾上覆羽及尾均褐色,尖端浅棕褐色,颊、喉白,下胸及胸侧褐色,余部白色。此鸟在保护区未见记录,《东北鸟类图鉴》(常家传,1995)上亦未记录。通过核对《中国鸟类图鉴》(马敬能,2000),Axel Braunlich博士确认为流苏鹬。在当时此鸟在河边浅水中觅食,离我们约60m。与其一起觅食的还有弯嘴滨鹬、黑尾塍鹬、红脚鹬等多种鹬类。

笔者通过查阅《中国鸟类手册》、《黑龙江省鸟类志》及《东北鸟类》、《中国鸟类区系纲要》和其他相关文献资料后认定,流苏鹬为我国东北地区鸟类新记录。可能为迷鸟。

    刘尊显  张喜祥  冯文义  邢海林(三江国家级自然保护区,抚远,黑龙江)

 

Philomachus pugnax—a new record ofbird in Northeast China

 

Philomachus pugnax belongs to Scolopacidae of Charadriiformes, it breeds in northern Eurasia, westwards to Britain, Norway and Sweden, northwards to Chukotskiy Peninsula, northeast of Siberia, southwards to Germany, Netherlands, Gilgis Plain of Central Asia and Altai, and winters in Africa, Southeast Asia and Australia. In migration it passes western Xinjiang, southern Tibet, western Jilin, Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Some birds winter in Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong and Taiwan.

One Philomachus pugnax was found at the northeast of Xinyan Village, under the jurisdiction of Yaluhe Station of the reserve (48º10¹15N, 133º5209E), when the author companied Dr. Axel Braunlich, the Germany ornithologist, expert of the international project of “GEF¹s coservation and reasonable use of China wetland diversity ” to make a survey at Sanjiang National Natur Reserve. The bird is 30cm in body length, with a long neck and humpback, its head is small with dark brown top, the beak is short and a little down curved, the legs are long and pink, the hind neck is hazel, its back, scapulars and tertiaries are brown-black, its rump and tail are brown, its ckeek and throat are white, the lower thorax and both sides of thorax are brown, the rest body is white. There was no record of the bird in the reserve, nor in the book of “Atlas of birds in Northeast China”(Chang Jia-Chuan, 1995). By checking “A field guide to the birds of China”(Mackinnon, J., 2000), Dr. Axel Braunlich made sure that the bird was Philomachus pugnax. The bird was feeding with Curlew Stints, Black-tailed Godwit, Common Redshanks and other snipes in shallow water near river bank, about 60m away from us.

The author checks “A synopsis of avifauna of China” and other data, and concludes that the bird is a new record of bird in Northeast China, it might be a vagrant.

 

Liu Zun-Xian, Zhang Xi-Xiang, Feng Wen-Yi, Xing Hai-Lin (Heilongjiang Sanjiang National N.R., Fuyuan, Heilongjiang )

 

 

江西九连山自然保护区发现海南

关于江西九连山自然保护区是否有海南鳽(Gorsachius magnificus)分布,2002年的《中国鹤类通讯》曾作过报道,认为该处发现海南鳽的机会很大。

2003年,江西省九连山自然保护区管理处的技术人员在有省内外专家的建议和支持下,加大了对海南鳽的寻找工作力度,终于发现了海南鳽,数量为8-10只。

2003年1月18日,九连山自然保护区的保护管理人员在进行日常巡护时,在保护区的花露核心区边缘的大丘田河畔草丛中,发现一只受伤成年鹭鸟,抱回经精心护养,因拒食而亡。保护区的技术人员对鸟尸体进行拍照、测量,并制作成生态标本。由于第一次见到叫不出名的鹭鸟,我们拍摄的照片分别寄给中科院动物研究所蒋志刚博士、徐延恭研究员和香港嘉道理农场暨植物园鸟类专家李国诚先生进行鉴定,专家鉴定一致认定该鸟为海南鳽。

2003年4月,我们邀请中科院动物研究所何芬奇先生、江西省科学院生物资源研究所副所长戴年华研究员、林剑声先生来九连山自然保护区进行鸟类考察,实地指导海南鳽的调查研究工作。14日傍晚7时许,专家在我们的陪同下,在大丘田河畔观察到一只飞翔的海南鳽,也许是海南鳽发现了人群,在上空盘旋2圈后即刻消失。借着月亮的微光,我们有幸观察到了海南鳽。15日早晨,专家继续对保护区的鸟类进行调查,早餐后,何芬奇先生、戴年华研究员分别为保护区的10余名技术人员和保护管理人员讲授了鸟类学及调查研究方法,下午与保护区的领导、技术人员共同研究了海南鳽的调查方法,并探讨了争取科研经费的渠道和可能性。

按有关专家的建议,保护区的科研人员分别于2003年4月下旬和5月中旬进行了两次专项考察。考察期间多次在白天观察到海南鳽觅食行为。4月下旬,我们分别在13时许、15时许观察到了海南鳽;5月中旬,在 8时许观察到海南鳽活动,5月13日11时许的这一次观察时间长达30来分钟,最近处距观察者不足5米,举首投足之情形尽收眼底。据资料介绍,海南鳽为夜间活动的鸟类,而我们在4-5月的白天观察到了海南鳽的活动觅食活动,是否可以认为繁殖期间的海南鳽白天也活动,有待进一步的观察研究。

九连山自然保护区对海南鳽的关注,始于2001年。是年的7月份,香港嘉道理农场暨植物园的李国诚、陈辈乐先生等一行四人,在保护区内的大丘田河流域进行了为期四天的海南鳽调查,其后,保护区的科研人员对海南鳽进行不定期的观察,间或有海南鳽疑似个体发现。直至2003年发现实体,确定海南鳽在九连山有分布。

(唐培荣 廖承开  江西省九连山自然保护区管理处)

作者通讯地址:江西省龙南县九连山

邮政编码:341701

电话:0797-3594289(办)3594339(家)

传真:0797-3594211

电子信箱: jxjlb@sina.com

 

 

White-eared Night Heron was found at

Jiulianshan Nature Reserve, Jiangxi

 

In “China Crane News” of December, 2001, the author reported that White-eared Night Heron was likely existed at Jiuiangshan N. R. , Jiangxi.

A wounded adult heron was found in the tussock of Hualu Core Area of the reserve, it was rescued but died of refusing to eat. The heron was photoed, measured and was made into specimen. The photoes were sent to Dr. Jiang Zhi-Gang and Senior Researcher Xu Yang-Gong, Academia Sinica, and Mr. Li Guo-Cheng, a bird expert of Hong Kong Jiadaoli Farm and Botanic Garden, the heron was identified to be White-eared Night Heron by the experts.

In April 2003, the reserve invited Mr. He Fen-Qi, Academia Sinica ,Senior Researcher Lin Jian-Sheng, a bird expert of Hong Kong Jiadaoli Farm and Botanic Garden and the vice director of Bio-resources Institute, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences to guide a survey and make the research on the bird at the reserve. One flying heron was found over the bank of Daqiutian River by us, at about 19:00 on April 14th. Next day two experts gave their lectures on ornithology and on how to investigate and study birds, and probed into the ways and possibility of applying for the research funds.

According to the suggestion of experts, we made two surveys in late April and middle May, 2003, feeding herons were found several times in the daytime in these surveys. The heron was recorded to be noctural, does our finding mean the heron may feed in the daytime in breeding season? It waits for further observation.

In July 2001, Mr. Li Guo-Cheng and Mr. Cheng Bei-Le, Hong Kong Jiadaoli Farm and Botanic Garden had surveyed the heron in the basin of Daqiutian River, staff of the reserve kept on surveying irregularly eversince, sometimes few doubtful individuals were found, till the real one was found in 2003, it conforms the existance of White-eared Night Heron at Jiulianshan N. R..

    Tang Pei-Rong, Liao Cheng-Kai (Administrative Department, Jiulianshan N. R.., 341701)

 

广西即将建立两个鹭鸟保护区

 

1.  南宁市那兰鹭鸟自然保护区

该保护区位于南宁市南部的邕宁县南晓镇那兰村。经过当地群众长期自发保护, 在那兰村已经形成了一个稳定的鹭鸟群落, 现有池鹭白鹭绿鹭和夜鹭等四种。这些鹭鸟聚集在小范围内营群巢,成为“鹭林”。其种群数量众多,盛时可超过1万只,蔚为壮观。

现划定保护区面积349公顷,为一个市级的小型鸟类保护区。2002年进行了保护区综合考察和总体规划,2003年3月下旬该保护区通过了论证和评审,已正式上报待批。

2.  广西防城万鹤山鹭鸟自然保护区

 该保护区位于北部湾沿海的防城港市防城区滨海地带。北部湾沿海地带处于东南亚和亚洲东北部之间的候鸟迁徙通道上,是候鸟迁徙的重要中途停歇地,同时也是我国东南沿海地区多种鹭鸟的重要繁殖地之一。因此,该保护区在生物多样性保护中具有重要作用。亦是 经过当地群众长期自发保护, 在防城区万鹤山亦形成了一个稳定的鹭鸟群落, 保护区内现有鹭科鸟类10, 其中7种鹭鸟聚集在万鹤山小范围内营群巢,成为大型复杂的鹭林,具有极高的科学研究价值。

在营群巢繁殖的鹭鸟中,有黄嘴白鹭和大白鹭。以往这两种鹭在广西都是旅鸟,这也是首次记录到这两种鹭在广西繁殖。

保护区规划面积1620公顷,为一个自治区(省)级的小型鸟类保护区。其范围内不但有山林、河溪,而且划进了大片沿海红树林和滩涂,可为数量众多的鹭鸟提供充足的觅食地。通过对鹭鸟群落的保护,可以带动对当地森林植被、湿地以及其它野生动植物的保护。该保护区于2002年进行了综合考察和总体规划,2003年5月初通过了论证和评审并已正式上报待批。

 

上述两个保护区鹭林的形成,都是当地社区长期参与保护的结果,是人、鸟与自然环境和谐相处的典型范例,具有特别重要的生态建设和生态教育的示范作用,其意义十分深远。我们希望有更多的群众参与保护鸟类,也期待有更多的水鸟类保护区建立。

 

                                                               周放 (广西大学)

 

Guangxi will set up tow heron nature reserves

 

1.       Nanin Nalan Heron Nature Reserve

The reserve locates at Nalan Village, Nanxiao Town, Yinin County, in the south of Nannin City. Been Long-term protected by the local people, a stable heron community has been formed at nalan Village, it includes Chinese Pond Heron, Little Egret, Green-backed heron and Black-crownedNight Heron, they nest within a small area and form the “heron woods”. The “heron woods” looked magnificent when with the maximum number of over 10 thousand herons.

The reserve has an area of 349ha and is a small municipalizing bird nature reserve. Comprehensive survey and overall plan of the reserve were made in 2002, the reserve was passes on the proof, examination and appraisal in late March, 2003, and was reported to the leadership and waits for approval.

2.       Fangcheng Wanheshan Heron Nature Reserve

The reserve locates at the coastle site of Fangcheng Bay and is on the migratory passageway of migrants between Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia.It is an important stopover area for migrants, and is one of the main breeding areas of herons in coastle area in Southeast China,hence it is important in biodiversity coservation. Been long-term protected by local people, a stable heron community has been formed at Wanheshan either, it includes 10 species of Ardeidae, among them 7 species nested together to form a large “heron woods”, it is of high value in scientific research.

The reserve has an area of 1620ha, and is a small provincial bird nature reserve. The mountain forests, rivers and streams, mongrove and seabeeches there offer the massive herons with sufficient feeding area. By protecting heron community it may promote the protection of local forest vagetation, wetland and othewr wildlife. Comprehensive survey and overall plan of the reserve were made in 2002, the reserve was passed on proof, examination and appraisal in May 2003, and was reported to the leadership and waits for approval.

The formation of the tow heron woods is the result of a long-term protection of local people, this is a model of humen, bird and natural environment live in harmony, it is of special demonstrating role in ecological construction and education. We hope that more people to take part in the bird protection, and expect that more nature reserves will been established to protect waterfowls.

Zhou Fang (Guangxi University)

 

 

纳帕海自然保护区白尾海雕和黑鹳的数量逐年增多

纳帕海自然保护区位于云南西北部香格里拉县城西北10余公里处,是一个季节性高原湖泊。1983年经云南省政府批准建立自然保护区。该保护区20世纪90年代中期首次记录到白尾海雕在此越冬,数量仅23只。近年来,白尾海雕的数量逐年增多。200111月笔者在保护区进行鸟类调查时,记录到21只白尾海雕。20031月初观察记录到26只白尾海雕,其中亚成鸟数量比例较大。白尾海雕在纳帕海保护区内持续增加,笔者认为与该水域内鱼的数量增加有密切关系。过去纳帕海湖内无鱼,90年代中期不知何人将鲫鱼引入湖中,鲫鱼迅速繁殖,遍布全湖,为白尾海雕和其它鸟类提供了食物。

纳帕海保护区建立之初,黑鹳数量极少,每个冬季仅记录到35只,到90年代末期,黑鹳数量也持续增加,200111月笔者观察记录到60只个体。据保护区工作人员介绍,最多时曾达到100多只。目前西南林学院观鸟会会员,野生动物保护和自然保护区管理专业的本科学生在教师的指导下正在对白尾海雕和黑鹳的越冬生态、种群数量变化、种群年龄结构进行观察研究。

韩联宪(西南林学院动物学教研室)

 

The annually increasing of White-tailed Sea Eagle and Black Stork at Napahai Nature Reserve

Napahai N. R. locates at the northwest of Xianggelila County, 10 km more from the county town, it is a seasonal plateau lake. Approved by the provincial government of Yunnan Province, the reserve was set up in 1983.

Two to three White-tailed Sea Eagles were first recorded wintered at the reserve in middle 1990s. the number of the bird has been increasing annually in recent years. The author recorded 21 birds in November, 2001, 26 birds were recorded in early January, 2003, among them there were many subadults. The increasing of the bird at the reserve might related to the increasing of fish in the waters. Originally there was no fish in Napahai, in middle 1990s somebody introduced Crucian Carp, the fish now distributed allover the lake and provide the eagle and other birds with food.

In the early years, only 3~5 Black Storks were recorded at the reserve in each winter. Since the end of 1990s, the number of black Stork has kept increasing, 60 birds were found by the author in November, 2001. The staff of the reserve had found a largest group of 100 more birds.

The members of the birdwatching society, the undergraduate students of wildlife protection discipline and nature reserve management discipline of Southwest Forestry College are making their researches on wintering ecology, the dynamics and age structure of the populations of the two species at the reserve now.

Han Lian-Xian (Kunming Southwest Forestry College, 650224)

东南部沿海越冬黑脸琵鹭和黑嘴鸥调查

 

根据2001年2月中日两国政府在东京召开的关于中日两国共同开展候鸟保护的工作会议精神,由国家林业局保护司和全国鸟类环志中心组成领导小组,与东南沿海各省区野生动物主管部门共同组成调查队,于20021220日-200319日和2003215日—31日对江苏省、上海崇明、浙江省、福建省、广西省以及海南省的海岸湿地进行了越冬水鸟和黑脸琵鹭、黑嘴鸥的专项调查。本次黑脸琵鹭的越冬调查历时3个月,共7个省,基本上覆盖了江苏以南的东部沿海主要湿地和主要的岛屿沿岸湿地。共完成166个主要观察点,其中大陆海岸湿地123个,主要岛屿沿岸湿地57个。

黑脸琵鹭在我国的越冬地除香港米浦和台湾曾文溪口外,在大陆还有江苏盐城、上海崇明岛、广东深圳、福建闽江口、海南东寨港和临高,本次发现越冬的黑脸琵鹭种群7个,共74只。其中上海崇明岛、福建闽江口和海南临高是新发现的越冬地,这些越冬地是否稳定,还须今后的进一步跟踪调查。

1999年调查以来,今年对黑嘴鸥的越冬种群的分布和数量又进行了一次较为全面的调查。分别在江苏、浙江、福建发现越冬的黑嘴鸥种群20个,其中浙江1335只、福建231只和江苏1040只,共2606只。

本次调查还在江苏盐城发现450余只的白琵鹭,在浙江宁海发现5只小天鹅以及在福建闽江口发现3只斑嘴鹈鹕。

张国钢(北京)

 

Survey on wintering Black-faced Spoonbill and Saunderss Gull in the coastal areas of southeast China

 

In February, 2001, the governments of China and Japan held a meeting in Tokyo, according to the intentions of the meeting concerning the protection of migrants by the cooperation of the two countries, the Division of Wildlife Conservation, State Forestry Administration and the National Bird Banding Center of China formed a leading group,  then the group orgnized a survey team with the wildlife administrative departments of the coastal provinces and regions of southeast China. The team surveyed the wintering waterfowls, Black-faced Spoonbill and Saunderss Gull in the coastal wetlands of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces and congming of Shanghai City, during December 20th, 2002 to January 19th, 2003 and February 15th to March 1st , 2003.

This survey lasts 3 months and covers 7 provinces, it basically covers the main wetlands and the littoral wetlands of main islands of east coastal areas to the south of Jiangsu Province. The team surveyed 166 observation spots, including 123 coastal wetlands in main land and 57 littoral wetlands of main islands.

Except for Mipo, Hong Kong and the estuary of Zengwenxi, Taiwan, the wintering Black-faced Spoonbills were also found in Yancheng, Jiangsu, Congmingdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Guangdong, the estuary of Minjiang, Fujian, Dongchaigang and Lingao, Hainan in China. In the survey 7 populations including 74 individuals of wintering Black-faced Spoonbills were found. Congmingdao, Shanghai, the estuary of Minjiang, Fujian and Lingao, Hainan were the newly found wintering areas for the spoonbills, whether these areas are stable or not, it waits for the futher investigation.

Based on the survey in 1999, a complete survey on the distribution and amount of wintering Saunderss Gull was make this time. Sixty populations including 2606 gulls were recorded, there were 20 populations includin 1335 gulls found in Zhejiang, 20 populations including 231 gulls in Fujian and 20 populations including 1040 gulls in Jiangsu.

This survey also found 450 more White Spoonbills in Yancheng, Jiangsu, 5 Tundra Swans in Ninhai, Zhejiang and 3 Spot-billed Pelicans in the estuary of Minjiang, Fujian.

 

Zhang Guo-Gang (Beijing,)

 

国际鹤类基金会简介

 

国际鹤类基金会(ICF)是一个非盈利的民间自然保护组织,其宗旨是,通过向人们提供经验、知识,激发兴趣,致力于挽救世界范围内的鹤类及其栖息环境。

ICF1973年由让·索伊和乔治·阿其博创建的。当时两人都是康乃尔大学博士生,他们在进行鹤类研究和撰写博士论文时,深深地被鹤类的美丽和神奇所吸引。同时,令他们深感担忧的是世界上许多种鹤类处于濒危的境地,他们决心创建一个从事鹤类研究和保护的基金会。索伊的父母十分支持他们的想法,并将位于威斯康辛州巴拉布市郊的一个养马场以每年1美圆的价格租给了他们。索伊和阿其博把养马场改造成了鹤类繁殖中心,并在这里创办了国际鹤类基金会。1979年,ICF购置了自己的土地,把总部移址至目前占地面积225英亩的地方。自1983年以来,ICF已经建成了办公大楼、游客中心、图书馆、宾馆、鹤类展览中心,以及一个拥有100多只鹤的大型饲养场。世界15种鹤类在这里都可见到。

ICF的主要工作是:环境教育、科学研究、生境恢复和保护、饲养繁殖、鹤类再引入。首先在鹤类的饲养繁殖方面做出了巨大贡献,其中下面几个方面创造了前所未有的功绩:(1)在1975年,在西半球首先孵化了丹顶鹤;(2)在1976年,首先在人工饲养条件下孵化出了白头鹤;(3)在1979年,在北美首先孵化出澳洲鹤;(4)在1981年,首先孵化出了白鹤;(5)在1984~1986年,首先使用“隔离饲养”方法把人工饲养的鹤释放野外;(6)在1993年,ICF第一次自己孵化出了肉垂鹤,从而成为首家能繁殖所有15种鹤的机构。

国际鹤类基金会的野外工作正在逐步扩大,目前,鹤类基金会在世界的22个国家直接参与40多个项目。例如,在美国,ICF与美国渔业和野生动物署、威斯康辛州自然资源局、美洲鹤恢复行动小组、迁徙行动等多个政府和非政府机构联合正在实施建立美洲鹤东部迁徙种群的行动。在2001年10月,第一批美洲鹤幼鹤由超轻型飞机引航,由威斯康辛州尼西达出发,开始了它们1218英里的长途旅行,在48天后,有7只到达了佛罗里达的察撒霍威孜卡国家野生动物保护区。2002年秋季,又进行了第二次超轻型飞机引航美洲鹤迁徙的活动。在第二年春季时,则由这些美洲鹤自己北迁。从2003年至2005年计划还要进行3次超轻型飞机引航的美洲鹤人工迁徙。希望在2005年以后,这些美洲鹤变得经验丰富,像一百年前那样能够独立向南迁徙。不仅如此,它们还会带着新加入的幼鹤一块走。性成熟以后,还能在这片土地上自然繁衍。(关于美洲鹤恢复工作的详细信息,请见李凤山《国外动物园科技信息》2003年“美洲鹤 -- 物种恢复和国际合作的象征”)。在非洲,ICF与湿地国际合作,从1999年开始评估非洲荒漠草原地区黑冠鹤的现状、分布以及威胁因子。2000年和2001年,又对从塞内加尔至埃塞俄比亚的非洲20多个国家进行了一次全面的黑冠鹤种群调查,评价塞内加尔河冲积平原的农业活动对黑冠鹤种群的影响,并为黑冠鹤及其栖息地的自然保护行动计划。在越南的湄公河三角洲的川赤国家保护区,ICF帮助越南保护濒危赤颈鹤的越冬地区以及其他湿地稀有鸟类,协助越南同行制订长期的保护管理计划和宣传教育活动,试图恢复这个国际重要的湿地的原始状况。

国际鹤类基金会由一个26人组成的董事会管理。科学顾问组成员21人,由国际上知名的鸟类学家和鹤类研究者组成,中国著名的鸟类学家郑光美和王岐山教授是其中的科学顾问成员。吉姆·哈里斯为现任主席,下有35名雇员。每年,大约有13~15名实习生和50~70名志愿人员协助野外生态、鹤类饲养繁殖以及环境教育工作。国际鹤类基金会以及她在过去30年在鹤类科研和保护方面所做的贡献越来越受到世界各地的鹤类研究和爱好者的关注,目前有10000多名会员支持国际鹤类基金会的工作。

李凤山  国际鹤类基金会)

 

Introduction to the International Crane Foundation

 

The International Crane Foundation (ICF), headquartered in Baraboo, Wisconsin, USA, is a non-profit conservation organization that works worldwide to save the fifteen species of cranes and their habitat by providing experience, knowledge and inspiration to people. 

 

ICF was founded by George Archibald and Ron Sauey.  George and Ron met in 1971 and were Cornell University graduate students, studying crane behavior and ecology.  Captivated by the beauty and mystique of cranes and wishing to save the world’s cranes, they decided to establish an organization dedicated to the study and preservation of cranes.  Ron’s parents supported their idea very much and leased them a horse farm in Baraboo of Wisconsin at $1/year in 1973.  They converted the horse farm into a breeding facility of cranes and founded the International Crane Foundation.  In 1979, ICF purchased its own site, and now has an area of 225 acres.  Beginning in 1983, ICF has constructed an administrative building, visitor center, library, guesthouse, exhibits, and captive crane complex. 

 

ICF works the following five main program areas: Education, Ecosystem Restoration and Preservation, Captive Breeding, Reintroduction, and Research. ICF’s reputation spread with a succession of “firsts” in captive breeding programs: (1) first red-crowned crane was hatched in the western hemisphere in 1975; (2) first hooded crane was hatched in captivity in 1976; (3) Brolgas was hatched for first time in North America in 1979; (4) first captive hatching of Siberian crane was made in 1981; (5) ICF pioneered “isolation rearing” efforts to release captive cranes in the wild from 1984-85; (6) ICF hatched its first wattled crane in 1993, making it the first institution to have bred all fifteen species of cranes successfully.

 

ICF’s field ecology and education projects have grown worldwide dramatically over the past three decades.  ICF now is directly involved in over 40 projects in 22 countries. For example, ICF began working on crane reintroduction in North America as a member of the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership (WCEP) in 1999.  After the successful completion of rearing and migration experiments with sandhill cranes in 2000, WCEP began the whooping crane reintroduction in 2001 at the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin.  Whooping crane chicks are conditioned to fly with an ultralight aircraft, which servers as their guide during the fall migration to their wintering area in western Florida.  These young birds return to Wisconsin on their own in the spring, having learned their migration route the previous autumn.  In Africa, ICF worked with Wetlands International to assess the overall status, distribution, and threats to the black crowned crane across the Sahel region of Africa in 1999.  In 2000, and 2001, a comprehensive population survey of black crowned crane was conducted in 20 African countries.  A conservation action plan for the black crowned crane and its habitats was developed, and threats to the black crowned cranes and their habitats have been addressed.  In Vietnam, ICF is helping the Vietnamese to protect a wintering area for the endangered eastern sarus crane and other native wetland birds at the Tram Chim National Nature Reserve, including assisting Vietnamese colleagues in developing long term management goals and education programs.  Through the reintroduction of natural processes, ICF is helping to restore this wetland of international importance.

 

ICF is governed by a 26 member Board of Directors, with a 21 member Board of Advisors, and a staff of approximately 35, which works under ICF President Jim Harris.  The Board of Advisors consists of well-known ornithologists and crane scientists in the world.  Chinese ornithologists Zheng Guangmei and Wang Qishan are among these 21 advisors.  Every year, 13-15 interns and 50-70 volunteers assist the Field Ecology, Crane Conservation, and Education Departments.  ICF’s 30-year tremendous efforts to crane research and conservation have attracted and supported by more and more people around the world been.  Today over 10000 members help support ICF’s programs.

 

                                                        Li Fengshan (International Crane Foundation)

 

WWF在九江和长沙召开长江中游湿地和生物多样性研讨会

 

长江中游的江河及其周围湖泊群(Yangtze River and Lakes)是我国鹤类及主要水禽重要的迁徙途经地和越冬地,其中的一些湖泊是国际重要的湿地。近年来,在人类经济活动、农发展、城市化和大规模的水利建设的影响下,湿地生态系统受到严重的干扰和破坏。国家对此十分重视,提出了退耕还林、封山育林、退田还湖、平垸行洪、以工代赈、移民建镇、加固干堤、疏浚河道32字方针。世界自然基金会(WWF)对长江流域的湿地也十分关注,于1999920日正式启动长江项目。

为了将生态、社会经济信息和现有的专家意见全面结合,建立生物多样性保护的目标和行动计划,有效地保护长江中游的湿地和生物多样性,WWF已于20021228-29日和200331213日分别在江西九江和湖南长沙召开“长江中下游湿地保护和利用学术研讨会”和“长江中游生物多样性展望研讨会”。世界自然基金会、国家林业局、长江技术经济学会、湖南省林业局、江西省林业局、湖北省林业局、洞庭湖自然保护区管理局、鄱阳湖自然保护区管理局、安徽沿江湿地自然保护区管理局、中国科学院地理资源研究所、中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所、中国科学院水生物研究所、江西省科学院、北京大学、安徽大学、中南林学院、湖南师范大学等单位的专家先后参与了研讨。九江会议期间,WWF还组织了与会专家考察了鄱阳湖越冬白鹤、白头鹤等水禽的栖息地。

二次会议的成果主要有:1.确定了“生命之河,万物家园”的长江中游生态区远景展望。2.制定了长江中游生物多样性保护的具体目标,即维持和保护江湖复合生态系统的独特性和完整性;保护(战略)淡水资源;维持和恢复长江中游水系的自然水文过程;有效保护核心物种及其栖息地;保护和恢复典型的地带性植被(亚热带常绿阔叶林);禁止引进入侵性物种,消灭或控制已经定居的入侵性物种。3.确定了核心物种与受关注物种,其中核心物种分别包括鱼类8种、两栖类3种、爬行类3种、兽类7种、鸟类7种、植物10种,植物群落7种,共38个物种与7种群落。7种鸟类核心物种中,水禽有4种,即白鹤、东方白鹳、小白额雁、中华秋沙鸭。4.确定了长江中游生态区核心物种的集中分布区,基本完成了分布图的数字化。目前正在进行后期工作,主要是核心物种分布区信息的收集与汇总、核心物种分布地区的核定、以及生物多样性保护优先区的核定,最后完成生态区生物多样性保护规划和行动计划。长江中游生态区生物多样性保护规划对越冬鹤类和水禽重要栖息地保护具有十分重要的促进作用。

 

                                                        周立志 (安徽大学生命科学学院 合肥 230039 )

 

WWF held two symposia on the wetland and biodiversity in the middle basin of Yangtze River in Jiujiang and Changsha

The rivers and lakes in the middle basin of Yangtze River are on the important flyways and are the important wintering sites for cranes and migratory waterfowls in China. Some lakes are listed to be the international important wetlands. In recent years, wetland ecosystem was disturbed and destroyed by humans economic activity, the development of agriculture, the urbanization and large scale construction of water conservancy. The central government took the matter seriously and made a series of measures. The WWF has paid great attention to the wetlands in the basins ofYangtze River, and started the yangtze River prgramme on 20th September, 1999.

In order to completely collect the information of ecology, social economy and the opinions of experts, to establish the goal and the action plan of biodiversity conservation and to conserve the diversities of the wetlands and organisms in the area, The WWF held the “Symposium on conserving and using the wetlands in the middle and lower basins of Yangtze River” in Jiujiang, Jiangxi, on 28th and 29th December, 2002, and the “Symposium on the biodiversity in the middle basin of Yangtze River in prospect” in Changsha, Hunan, on 12th and 13th March, 2003. Experts from the IUCN, the State Forestry Administration, the Technological and Economical Society of Yangtze River, the Forestry Bureaus of Hunan, Jiangxi and Hubei, the Administrative Bureaus of Dongtinghu N.R. and Poyanghu N.R., and Anhui Riverian Wetland N.R., the Institutes of Geographical Resources, of Geography and Lakes and of Aquatic Creature of Academia Sinica, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Beijing University, Anhui University, Middle South Forestry College and Hunan Normal University attended the meetings. In session of the Jiujiang meeting, the participants investigated the habitats of the wintering Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane at Poyanghu.

The two meetings have achieved at: 1. Prospected the futhure of ‘the river of life, the home of all things of creation”—the ecological region in the middle basin of yangtze River. 2. Worked out a concrete goal for biodiversity conservation in the area, including to maintain and protect the speciality and intactness of the combined ecosystem of rivers and lakes, to protect freshwater resources, to maintain and restore the natural hydrolgical process of the river system of the area, to protect the core species and their habitats efficiently, to protect and restore the typical zonal vegetation (the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest), to forbit introducing the invasive species, and to eliminate or control the settled invasive species. 3. Determined the core species and the species concerned, the core species contains 8 species of fishes, 7 species of amphibians, 3 species of reptiles, 7 species of mammals, 7 species of birds, 10 species of plants, and 7 types of plant communities, totally 38 species and 7 types of communities. Four species of waterfowls: Siberian Crane, Oriental White Stork, Lesser White-fronted Goose and Chinese Merganser are among the 7 species of  core bird species. 4. Determined the concertrating areas of the core species, a digitized distribution map was basically completed. The later stage works are underway, including to collect and combine the information of the distributive areas of the core species, to check the distributive areas and the prioritory areas for biodiversity conservation, and to complete the biodiversity conservation prgramme and the action plan of the ecological region. The programme will greatly promote the protection of the important habitats for the wintering cranes and waterfowls.

                                                 Zhou Li-Zhi (Scool of Life Sciences, Anhui University, 230039)

 

开展社区参与湿地保护区管理的环境教育活动

国际鹤类基金会正在与中国的环境教育工作者以及自然保护部门合作开展一个为期三年的环境教育项目。本项目由鲁斯基金会(Luce Foundation)提供资助,项目地点包括中国和俄罗斯的6个自然保护区。本项目的关键在项目设计和实施中,将充分发挥当地的积极性和参与性,达到使当地参与湿地资源保护和管理的目的。

本项目的六个地点是:中国的扎龙、挠力河、向海、鄱阳湖、草海,以及俄罗斯阿穆尔州的穆拉威克公园。中国的五个项目地点都是国家级的自然保护区,对鹤类和其他迁徙水鸟的保护都是极为重要的,其中三个地点是莱姆萨尔公约中的国际重要湿地。扎龙(国际重要湿地)、挠力河、向海(国际重要湿地)是鹤类的繁殖和停歇地;鄱阳湖保护区(国际重要湿地)和贵州草海是鹤类越冬地。穆拉威克公园是自1917年以来俄罗斯的第一个非官方保护区,丹顶鹤和白枕鹤的密度是最高的,另外有三种鹤在那里栖息。

我们用参与式方法来设计和实施项目。内容包括:为保护区人员提供参与式培训;与当地群众共同探索教育需求;与当地学校老师共同设计环境教育活动和材料。在中国5个项目点的活动内容包括:为当地学生举办夏令营;为当地学校制订环境教育教材;为当地学生和成年人制订自然保护行动指南。需要强调的是,这些活动内容将与各个保护区的资源管理、科研和社区发展工作紧密结合。

本项目与国际鹤类基金会和国家林业局共同实施的白鹤全球环境基金项目(GEF)相呼应的。白鹤GEF项目在中国的5个保护区中制订管理计划和实施持续发展的活动。五个GEF保护区有3个(鄱阳湖、扎龙、科尔沁)是本项目的项目点,它们位于白鹤在中国和俄罗斯之间的迁徙路线上。通过这些相类似的工作,国际鹤类基金会和中国的合作方希望提高当地的环保意识和能力建设,解决自然保护和经济发展带来的挑战。

Sara Moore  ( 国际鹤类基金会)

 

 

Promoting Crane Conservation through Education and Community Involvement in China and Russia

 

The International Crane Foundation (ICF), in partnership with Chinese educators and conservation authorities, is undertaking a three-year project funded by the Luce Foundation to develop environmental education programming for six nature reserves in China and Russia.  Key to the project is community involvement in the development of the programs, with the goal of involving local populations in the protection and management of wetland resources wit hin the reserves.

 

The five Chinese sites are all national level nature reserves of critical importance to cranes and other migratory waterbirds, and three sites are listed as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention.  The sites protect breeding and migratory stopover habitat (Zhalong, Naoli, and Xianghai), as well as wintering habitat (Poyang and Cao Hai) for several species of cranes and other waterbirds.  The sixth site, Muraviovka Park in Russia, is widely known as that country’s first privately protected reserve since 1917, and has the densest population of nesting Red-crowned and White-naped Cranes, with three other species resting on migration.

 

The project will include training for reserve staff in participatory methods, involvement of local people in identifying education needs, and collaboration with local teachers in designing activities and materials.  Education programs at the Chinese sites will include summer/winter camps for children from villages surrounding the protected wetlands, school curricula for use by teachers in local schools, and strategies for student and adult conservation action.  These programs will be closely integrated with management, research, and community development activities at the reserves.

 

This project dovetails with a six-year project undertaken by ICF and China’s State Forestry Administration with support from GEF, the Global Environment Facility, to develop management plans and sustainable development activities at the Zhalong, Xianghai, and Poyang reserves, which form part of the flyway between Russia and China for the endangered Siberian Crane.  Through these and similar projects throughout the world, ICF and their partners hope to increase local awareness and capacity to address the challenges of nature conservation and human development needs.

 

Sara Moore ( International Crane Foundation)

 

盐城观鹤

丹顶鹤也称仙鹤,是我国著名的文化鸟类,也是世界濒危鸟类。目前全世界种群数量不足2000只,且仅分布于东亚地区。我国是丹顶鹤最主要的繁殖地鹤越冬地。每年繁殖数量达300多只,而越冬数量达1000多只。全球80%以上的迁徙丹顶鹤均在我国越冬。而丹顶鹤的最主要越冬地就是江苏盐城国家级珍禽自然保护区。

江苏盐城国家级珍禽自然保护区位于江苏省北部,黄海之滨。地理位置在32°32′-34°25N119°55′-121°50E。保护区面积为453000公顷。湿地面积大,人为干扰小,气候适宜,成为水禽的乐园,是我国水禽的重要越冬地之一,也是我国最大的丹顶鹤越冬地。

作为一名鹤类研究人员,非常希望能够到盐城鹤类的越冬地去看鹤,观察鹤类的越冬习性,走进鹤类的天地,享受鹤舞的愉悦。

2002年年底,终于有机会走进盐城,走进鹤类的王国。200212月中旬,笔者参加了一个由WWFGEF在盐城举办的水鸟调查培训班。来自5个项目省和10个自然保护区及福建省共计40多人参加了为期一周的培训班。虽然对培训班的内容早已熟知,但还是怀着浓厚的兴趣参加了培训。而培训班后的野外调查使我非常兴奋,4天的野外考察时间,我们共调查了7个点。其中有鹤类分布的4个点,分别是麋鹿Ⅲ核心区,盐城核心区,鹤场及射阳盐场,总计记录到丹顶鹤185只。最大集群发现在保护区核心区,总计记录到丹顶鹤115只。分成三个大群,数量为11只,42只,63只。我们是9日上午9:30到达核心区的。此时,丹顶鹤大多在芦苇丛或草甸中休息,仅有少数个体在觅食,整个鹤群显得十分安静。第一群与第二群之间距离约500米,第二群与第三群之间的距离为1500米。家族群个体之间的距离较近,多不超过10米;家族群之间的距离多在1050米。在3群丹顶鹤中,幼鹤数量较少,仅观察到7只当年幼鹤。10:30鹤群开始明显活动,到11:00,除边缘少数个体外。3个鹤群合成一群,并不停的高声鸣叫。鹤鸣之声此起彼伏,传向远方。下午我们到射阳盐场,在此地我们有见到54只丹顶鹤。最大集群为34只,在收割后的农田中觅食。觅食地点距居民区不足500米,距公路200多米。亦未见有人干扰丹顶鹤的觅食,而丹顶鹤对往来的车辆也毫不理会,仍悠然自得地觅食。

本次调查,由于阴雨及涨潮,见到的丹顶鹤数量较预计少。据保护区工作人员介绍11月中旬,曾观察到1000多只的丹顶鹤和灰鹤越冬群,其中丹顶鹤有400多只。

除丹顶鹤外,本次暂短的调查还记录到东方白鹳1只,黑脸琵鹭19只,白琵鹭10只,黑嘴鸥5只,鸬鹚4000多只,鸭类8000多只,鸥类1500多只,鸻鹬类500多只,白骨顶2500多只等。

 

李晓民(东北林业大学野生动物资源学院,哈尔滨,150040

 

Watching cranes at Yangcheng

A training course on surveying waterfowls was held by the WWF and GEF in Yangcheng in middle December, 2002, 40 more persons respectively came from 5 programmes, 10 nature reserves and Fujian Province participated the course.

During 4 dayssurvey, among 7 sites we surveyed 4 of them had cranes, they were Davids Deer III Core Area, Yangcheng Core Area, Crane Farm Area and Sheyang Saltworks. Totally 185 Red-crowned Cranes were found, the cranes gathered into 3 groups, each had 11, 42 and 63 cranes. When we arrived at the core area at 9:30, most of the cranes rested in reed marshes or grassy marshland, few were feeding. The distance between group 1 and group 2 was about 500m, that between group 2 and group 3 was 1500m. The distances in between families were 10~50m, while the distances in between individuals within one family were mostly less than 10m, only 7 juveniles were found. At 11:00 the 3 groups gathered into one large group and the cranes called loudly. We found 54 Red-crowned Cranes at Sheyang Saltworks in the afternoon that day. The largest group contained 34 cranes, they were feeding in harvested farmlands, where was less than 500m apart from the village and 200m more apart from highway. Ignored the traffic nearby the cranes kept on feeding, they felt safe here.

Due to the raining and the rising tide happened, the number of Red-crowned Cranes we found was less than those we had expected. The reserve staff said that they had once found a wintering crane group consisting of 1000 more Red-crowned Cranes and Common Cranes in middle November that year, among them there were 400 more Red-crowned cranes.

Except for Red-crowned Cranes, we found 1 Oriental White Stork, 19 Black-faced Spoonbills, 10 White Spoonbills, 5 Saunders Gulls, 400 more Cormorants, 8000 more ducks, 1500 more gulls, 500 more plovers and snipes, and 2500 more Black Coots.

 

                                                        Li Xiao-Ming (wildlife Forestry University, 150040,)

 

新书介绍:《全球水鸟种群数量评估第三版》

湿地国际(Wetland International)于2002年出版了《全球水鸟种群数量评估第三版》(Waterbird Population Estimates - Third Edition)。该书由Simon DelanyDerek Scott主编,包括以下内容:

·         确定了全球所有868种水鸟的2271个生物地理种群;

·         评估了其中1725个种群的数量;

·         评估了其中1138个种群的变化趋势(下降、稳定或上升);

·         为根据《拉姆萨公约》确定“国际重要湿地”,提供了各种群全球数量的1%标准;

·         为国际重要湿地的确定、迁徙水鸟的保护和区域性水鸟保护协议的制定提供了理论依据;

·         指出了目前对全球水鸟种群、物种和地理区域分布的了解所欠缺的内容;

·         全书为彩版印刷,共226页,840幅分布图、63张彩色照片、4个表格和2个统计图。

同第一版(1994)和第二版(1997)一样,《全球水鸟种群数量评估第三版》将成为全世界水鸟研究和保护管理人员的一本重要的参考书。该书定价25英镑,可向Natural History Book Service联系购买,也可以免费从网上下载。具体地址:<http://www.nhbs.com/xbscripts/bkfsrch?search=103650>.  <http://www.wetlands.org/pubs&/WPE.htm >

                                                                                           (北京,丁长青)

New book:

Waterbird Population Estimates - Third Edition has been published recently. This publication sets the global standard in presenting estimates of the numbers and trends of waterbird populations throughout the world. It will be an important reference for the research and conservation management of the waterbirds.

The summary of this book is:

This book could be downloaded from <http://www.wetlands.org/pubs&/WPE.htm> in PDF format. You can also order the hardcopy report from the Natural History Book Service< http:// www.nhbs.com/xbscripts/bkfsch>.

 

       DING Chang-Qing (Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100080)

 

欢迎海外会员加盟

Membership for the China Crane and Waterbird Committee

The China Crane and Waterbird Committee (CCWC) offers membership to people who are making efforts in research, conservation, education, management, and publicity of cranes and other waterbirds, and their habitats in China.  As a member, you will receive two issues of China Crane News each year.  Dr. Li Fengshan from the International Crane Foundation will be the coordinator for overseas membership.  If you would like to enroll as a member of the CCWC, please make a check of $20 payable to:

International Crane Foundation

c/o Dr. Li Fengshan

P. O. Box 447

Baraboo, Wisconsin 53913, USA

 

You also can make a payment by credit card; please give your credit card number and expiration date.

 

If you have questions regarding the membership, please contact:

Dr. Li Fengshan

China Program Coordinator

International Crane Foundation

P. O. Box 447

Baraboo, Wisconsin 53913, USA

Tel: 608-356-9462 ext. 158

Fax: 608-356-9465

Email: fengshan@savingcranes.org